Open Access Grey Literature

Soy Intake and Possible Adverse Health Effects in Nordic Children and Pregnant Women (Unborn Children)

Lea Bredsdorff, Sisse Fagt, Julie Boberg, Kirsten Pilegaard, Anneli Widenfalk, Inger-Lise Steffensen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 26-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130315

Background: The intake of plant-based foods is currently increasing in the Nordic countries and many of these products are based on soy. For example, soy-based products with appearances close to minced meat are marketed as substitutes for meat, and many soy-based milk alternatives are replacing cow’s milk. The rising interest in such products can partly be attributed to an increasing number of persons identifying themselves as vegetarians or vegans. An increased intake of soy-based products as replacements of milk and meat may be beneficial to health, but there is also a concern for adverse health effects in certain population groups. The natural content of estrogen-like substances (e.g. isoflavones) in soy gives rise to concern for endocrine disrupting effects in children and unborn children (i.e. pregnant women).


Aims: The aims of this project were to:


1) Explore available data on soy intake,

2) Propose intake scenarios for children and pregnant women from the Nordic countries with high intake of soy products,

3) Estimate the nutritional impact of substituting conventional products of animal origin with soy products and

4) Clarify whether health-based guidance values (HBGVs) can be determined for isoflavones for children and women of childbearing age.


Methods: A dietary exposure scenario with substantial substitution of animal products with soy-based products in the diet of Danish women (age 18-45 years) and children (age 4-10 years) was established for the exploration of effects of soy-based products on dietary intake and nutrition. The basis of these calculations was the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 (DANSDA); a nationwide, cross-sectional survey assessing diet and physical activity of the Danish population. In addition, dietary exposure to isoflavones from such a substantial soy-substituted diet was estimated based on recently published data on isoflavone content in different foods. A literature search including five different databases for the investigation of animal and human studies relevant for a risk assessment of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and glycitein) was performed.


Results: In the scenario of a substantial soy-substituted diet the intake of soy was higher in children than in women, due to higher intake of milk products among children. Approximately 60% of the intake of soy was derived from substituted dairy products (milk and cream products). Only minor changes occurred in the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates and fats among women and children, while the intake of various micronutrients changed by this substitution. Intake of vitamin A, riboflavin and vitamin B12 was reduced 20% or more among both women and children, while the intake of vitamin E increased more than 20% among women and children. Among children, the intake of calcium and iodine decreased 20% or more, while the intake of magnesium increased. This does, however, not change the degree of fulfilling recommended intake levels of micronutrients, as the intake was near or above recommended intake both with and without substitution for most substances, except for vitamin D and iron, which was low regardless of substitution or not.


In this scenario with substantial soy substitution, the estimated genistein exposure ranged between 0.04-0.06 mg/kg bw per day for women, 0.09-0.2 mg/kg bw per day for girls and 0.1-0.2 mg/kg bw per day for boys. The estimated daidzein exposure was similar to the genistein exposure, while estimated glycitein exposure was considerably lower for all groups. The total estimated isoflavone exposure (sum of genistein, daidzein and glycitein) ranged between 0.05-0.1 mg/kg bw per day for women, 0.1-0.3 mg/kg bw per day for girls and 0.2-0.4 mg/kg bw per day for boys.


A total of 6,304 references were identified in the literature search for human and experimental animal toxicity data on soy and soy constituents. After assessment for relevance, five animal studies, 23 human studies and three review papers were included in the hazard identification and characterization. Among the human studies four major endpoints were identified, i.e., timing of puberty, breast cancer, hypospadias and thyroid function. These endpoints were also identified among the animal studies with the addition of fertility and markers of impaired reproductive development.


Among the four included endpoints, no critical effect of isoflavones on children or pregnant women (unborn children) in the human studies was identified. Two animal studies were considered suitable for deriving an HGBV for genistein exposure of children and pregnant women. Results from a multi-generational study in rats were thus used for HBGV derivation for genistein exposure of pregnant women (0.09 mg/kg bw per day corresponding to 6.3 mg per day for a person weighing 70 kg). A study on post-weaning exposure of mice was used for HBGV derivation of genistein for exposure of children (0.07 mg/kg bw per day corresponding to 2.1 mg per day for a child weighing 30 kg). The critical effects for both HBGVs were timing of puberty and early mammary development.


Conclusions: It was possible to address all aims of the project:


  • The available data on soy intake among the general population in Denmark was explored by analysing data from the dietary survey and conducting research regarding available soy-based products on the Danish market.
  • Intake of soy in women and children with high intake of soy was estimated in scenarios using substitution of foods that realistically could be substituted by soy-containing products. The results showed that intake of soy is higher in children than in women, due to higher intake of milk products among children.
  • No adverse nutritious impacts on either macro- or micronutrients were identified when substituting animal-based products with soy-based varieties.
  • An HGBV could be determined for genistein for children and pregnant women. Based on estimated intake of genistein from a substantial soy-substituted diet there is no concern for pregnant women (unborn children). On the other hand, for girls and boys (age 4-10 years), the HGBV for genistein is slightly exceeded after intake of a soy-substituted diet, indicating a potential health concern for children eating a substantial soy-substituted diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Different Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Microbes

Abdullah S. Seddiek, Gamal M. Hamad, A. A. Zeitoun, M. A. M. Zeitoun, Salim Ali

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130312

Aims: Guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), olive (Olea europaea L.), and moringa (Moringa oleifera( extracts which are assumed to contain active components and which are renewable sources in fighting infections of microbes. This study aimed to investigate its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

Methodology: The agar well diffusion technique, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and the free radical scavenging activity of the plant extracts were applied.

Results: All extracts exhibited different results against the microorganism used in the research. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacteria and fungi ranged from 25 to 300 mg/mL. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. In addition, the amount of total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts ranged from 48.08 to 324.08 mg/g, while total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from11.53 to 65.85 mg/g.

Conclusion: It could be noticed that the guava and pomegranate extracts had strong antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while olive extract had a moderate effect, but moringa showed a very weak effect against tested microbes. Therefore, the herbal extracts of guava and pomegranate could be used as novel, safe, and effective food preservatives instead of chemical ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutrient and Phytochemical Composition of Cola lepidota Fruits (K. Schum): An Underutilized Fruit

G. I. Okwu, C. Okwu- Abolo, C. F. Emereole, O. A. Ogbonna

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130313

This study examined the nutrient and phytochemical composition of Cola lepidota fruits commonly known as Monkey Kola. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried. Dried pulps were milled into flour and packaged in properly labeled air-tight polyethene sachets. The nutrient composition was determined using standard AOAC methods while the phytochemical composition was determined using the gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Findings from the results revealed that 100 g portion of fresh Cola lepidota was high in moisture content (88.9%), moderate in carbohydrate content. The most abundant mineral was calcium (182.5 mg/100 g), followed by magnesium (87.5 mg/100 g), potassium (68.1 mg/100 g) and phosphorous (34.4 mg/100 g). Cola lepidota has substantial amount of vitamin A (25.63 mg/100 g) and vitamin C (12.98 mg/100 g). The phytochemical compositions found in the fruit were quite high, the most abundant were flavonoid (420.7 mg/100 g) and saponin (42.4 mg/100 g). These findings indicate rich nutritional and potential health benefits of this underutilized fruit. Thus, the information obtained from the study will contribute in widening the scope of the knowledge and encourage conservation and domestication preservation of this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Value Added Products from under-Utilized Tamarind Kernel Powder

B. Farhat Sultana, R. Vijayalakshmi, P. S. Geetha, M. L. Mini

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130314

Aim:  To develop value added products from Tamarind kernel powder (TKP).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Community Science College and Research Institute, Madurai.

Methodology: The nutritional value of TKP and the potential of TKP as a food additive were investigated. The TKP and commercial additives were experimented under the refrigerated and room temperature for their viscosity properties in order to identify the potential of TKP as a thickening agent. Standardization for the level of incorporation was done in Mango smoothie using TKP as thickening agent in the rate of T1-0.25%, T2-0.50%, T3-0.75%, T4-1.00%.

Results: The performance of TKP as thickening agent was not considerably higher. Its performance was not significantly higher on comparison with commercial thickening agents. Xanthan gum ranked high among all the additives in terms of thickening property. Among the different incorporations of tamarind kernel powder T4 performed best in terms of viscosity.

Conclusions: The results indicate that TKP have poor thickening property. To improve this property the TKP can be subjected to structural modification and isolation of polysaccharide which would yield better results. TKP as a food additive replacing conventional food additives will be a great boom to the food industry. There will be increase in anti-oxidant and phytochemical property of the resultant product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Local “Madiga” Bread Enriched with Defatted Fluted Pumpkin Seed Flour

D. B. Kiin- Kabari, B. S. Chibor, S. D. Akpoebi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130316

The objective of this work was to produce local (Madiga) bread from the blend of wheat and fluted pumpkin seed flour and to evaluate the nutrient composition and sensory properties of enriched Madiga produced from these flour blends. Defatted fluted pumpkin seed flour was used to substitute wheat flour at the following; (Wheat to Fluted pumpkin seed flour ratio); 100:0 (control), 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40%, 50:50, and labelled as samples A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. The ash content ranged from 1.20 – 2.55%, with sample A given significantly lower ash content (1.20%) than those of the enriched Madiga. Significantly higher ash values of 2.55%, 2.44% and 2.39% were recorded in samples E, F and D, respectively. There was no significance in the fat content of samples A and B. Percentage protein ranged from 6.79% – 9.36%. The crude protein content of all the enriched Madiga samples were significantly higher than that of the control, Crude fiber content ranged from 0.91% – 1.82%, with sample C given significantly higher value of 1.82% followed by samples D and F. Control local Madiga gave significantly higher carbohydrate content of 74.31%. The energy value per kcal/100g for samples B, C, D, E and F were 258.62, 284.16, 296.07, 296.96 and 278.81, respectively. Samples B and C received significantly higher value of 4.70 and 4.05, respectively, keeping these samples in the ‘sweet’ to ‘very sweet’ range. Samples B and C received significantly higher overall acceptability and were scored 3.85 and 3.70, respectively. These values were however, not significantly difference from 3.33 and 2.93 as scored in samples D and E, respectively. Substitution of wheat flour with 10, 20 and 30% defatted fluted pumpkin seed flour was effective in producing enriched Madiga bread, thus recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Nutritional and Antioxidant Components of Fruit Parts of Citrullus lanatus

Stanley Kanayochukwu Nnenne, Kingsley Ikechukwu Ubaoji, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Victor Henry Azubuike Enemor, Adebayo Afees Oladejo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 39-51
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130317

Aim: Citrullus lanatus is a fruit widely consumed for its pulp though incompletely, as its other parts (seed and rind) are discarded and may possibly offer bioactive compounds involved in ameliorating certain disease conditions. Hence, this study aimed at comparatively investigating the nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the seed, pulp and rind of C. lanatus so as to inform the inclusion of these different parts into the fare of the people.

Methodology: Standard analytical methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists were used to determine proximate, phytochemical, vitamin, mineral and antioxidant aspects of the fruit parts. The results were analyzed using Student’s t-test at .05.

Results: The proximate analysis showed a high moisture value in the pulp (93.34 +/- .82) followed by the rind (77.11 +/- 3.44) and the seed (10.00 +/- .48). High crude protein and fiber contents were both noted in the seed followed by the rind and pulp. Mineral determinations revealed potassium to be abundant in the rind (452.31mg/kg) than the seed (305.7mg/kg) and the pulp (100.5mg/kg), followed by calcium occurring more in the rind (292.61mg/kg) than in the pulp (257.21mg/kg) and seed (227.45mg/kg) and then manganese being the least concentrated among the minerals. The investigated phytochemical principles revealed the highest concentration of cardiac glycosides in the seed (14.82 +/- .66) than the rind (1.95 +/- 0.80) and pulp (1.10 +/- 0.17), followed by saponins occurring most in the rind (12.05 +/- 3.91) than the seed (10.17 +/- 0.63) and pulp (.13 +/- .01). The seed had the highest DPPH scavenging activity followed by the rind and pulp respectively. The seed also showed a higher reducing power and lipid peroxidation capacities than the other fruit parts suggesting a potent property for antioxidant activity in the fruit parts of C. lanatus.

Conclusion: The findings imply that both seed and rind of C. lanatus can be good sources of nutritional, phytochemical and antioxidant components in addition to the pulp which is commonly consumed and these may be implicated in management of certain diseases with further evidential research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Iodine Content of Packaged Salt and Related Knowledge and Storage Practices at Household Level in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Md Sujan Hossen, Md Nazrul Islam Khan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130318

Aims: Iodine deficiency disorders are one of the major public health concerns in Bangladesh. Regular consumption of iodized salt can help combat these disorders. The aims of this study were to determine the content of iodine in edible packaged salt and to assess iodized salt related knowledge and storage practices in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

Study Design: The study was an experimental cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted from June 2019 to July 2019 in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. A total of 120 households were selected for interview and packaged salt sample collection. The chemical analysis was done in the Food Analysis Laboratory of Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka.

Methodology: A closed-ended questionnaire was used for collection of information. Iodometric titration method was used to determine the content of iodine in packaged salt samples.

Results: The mean (±SD) iodine content in the salt samples was 31.469 (±10.196) ppm. More than 90% salt samples were adequately iodized. Twenty five percent of the respondents know that consumption of iodized salt helps prevent goiter. Only 10.8% of the respondents know that iodine content decreases if iodized salt is stored close to fire. About 87% of them store salt away from fire.

Conclusion: Along with consuming packaged iodized salt, householders should be educated about iodized salt related knowledge and storage practices to control iodine deficiency disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Carica papaya Seeds for Pharmacologically Bioactive and Nutritionally Beneficial Substances for Optimization of Its Nutraceutical Potential

V. H. A. Enemor, O. F. Nworji, U. C. Ogbodo, O. R. Ngwu, E. C. Orji, I. O. Ohagim

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130319

Papaya seeds, though rarely eaten, are used in folk medicine around the world. This study analysed the seeds to evaluate their nutritional and phytochemical content using standard methods. Proximate analysis showed the seeds are a good source of carbohydrate (48.91% ± 0.69) and protein (24.33% ± 0.74). Essential minerals such as iron (70.16 mg/kg ± 0.08), selenium (12.50 mg/kg ± 0.08), and calcium (26.96 mg/kg ± 0.08) are present in the seeds at optimal quantities. Amino acid and vitamin analysis indicated that papaya seeds are rich sources of vitamin A (117.28 ± 2.09 mg/kg), B6 (37.70 ± 1.84 mg/kg), D (27.60 ± 3.96 mg/kg), K (119.81 ± 15.88 mg/kg), and all essential amino acids. Phytochemical analysis of the seeds revealed forty-three bioactive compounds including acetic acid and pyrrole, both of which have antimicrobial properties. From the above analytical results, it was revealed that papaya seeds have nutraceutical properties and can be used, in the appropriate quantity as a food or health supplement or an adjunct animal feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hydrocolloid Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) on Clarification of Bottle Gourd Juice and Its Physicochemical Properties

Aafaq Ashraf, Anjum Ayoub, Ashish Dixit

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130323

Effectiveness of the Hydrocolloid Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) on Bottle Gourd Juice was investigated in this study. The influence of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the colloidal stability of cloudy Bottle Gourd juice has been studied. Concentrations of CMC from 0.1–0.4% completely inhibited juice clarification. Juices with CMC were more stable.Characterization of rheology is important for clarification of the product and storage.Use of hydrocolloid was only to enhance viscosity and creating gel structure of juice.Temperatures ranging from 5-35ºC were used in carrying out the experiments . The purpose of this research was to study the clarification, quality improvement and shelf life of Bottle gourd juice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aspergillus spp., on Liver, Kidney and Intestines of WNIN Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Fed on Fungus Inoculated Rice (Oryza sativa. L) – An Electron Microscope Study

P. Madhusudhana Chary, Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan, Dharmapuri Raghunatha Rao

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 76-89
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130324

Aims: This present study was conceived with two objectives.  The first aim of the study is to establish the ultrastructural variation of normal rice grain collected from different market sources. Also, the study is aimed to investigate the fungal (Aspergillus spp.,) infection in stored rice grain and Ultrastructural variation patterns in rice due to fungal infection by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Further, the changes in selected visceral organs (Liver, Kidney and Intestines) of Wistar NIN Rat when they were fed on fungal inoculated rice.

Study Design: The study was completed in to the two phases.

First Phase: Collection of different rice samples, preparation of contaminated rice inoculated with Aspergillus sp., Ultrastructure analysis of rice samples by using SEM.

Second Phase: Animal experiments, Analysis of biochemical estimations in blood serum by spectrophotometer and ultrastructural studies in the selected visceral organs viz., Liver, kidney and intestines of rat by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Histopathological changes by Light microscope in rats fed   with inoculated rice powder with Aspergillus spp.,(treated) fungus.

Control rats were fed with normal rice powder (control).

Place and Duration of the Study:  SEM Facility, Extension and Training division ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Tarnaka, Hyderabad. Telangana state, India. Duration from 2013 to 2015.

Methodology: Animal experiments with albino white Wistar Rat (Rattus norvigecus) weighing about approximately 120-140 grams of each rat and six (6) of each for treated group and control were taken for experimental purpose. Six rats were fed on inoculated rice with fungus Aspergillus sp., and 6 were fed without fungus inoculated rice for control. These animals were maintained under standard procedure as per the protocol of animal ethics. After 28 days of feeding, all the rats were sacrificed as per the regulations animal ethical guidelines. Tissues like liver, kidney and intestines of rats (treated and control) were processed and examined for histopathological and ultrastructural changes by using light and electron microscope. Blood serum from the treated and control rats were collected and processed for biochemical investigations by spectrophotometer.

Results:  The hepatocytes in liver of the treatment group rats showed metachromatic granules (cytoplasmic) and nuclear pleomorphism (occurrence of more than one form of glycogen granules) existence in same species of more than one morphological type but it was absent in the control rats’ livers.  In electron microscope studies, swollen mitochondria and well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were present in treated group rats as against normal mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in control rats were observed. The kidneys of treatment group showed patch like mononuclear cell infiltrations in the cortex including many apoptotic bodies in between the renal tubules. Intestines of treated group rat showed the damages in the inner walls of intestinal epithelium in between cells. TEM studies showed swollen mitochondria, absorptive cells of epithelium and endoplasmic reticulum tubules were highly expanded in the treated group rat intestines while normal appearance of the intestines with well developed epithelial  cells of  microvilli was observed in control rats.

Conclusion:  Improper storage of rice grains in food godowns would cause damage to the rice grains due to fungal infections. Although fungal infected grain apparently normal in appearance, from the food safety point of view the grains are not fit for human consumption. Hence, using SEM in quality control and assurance of food safety of rice grains to assess the quality to declare fitness for human consumption is required at this juncture.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Protein Digestibility and Iron Bioavailability According to Agro-Ecological Zone and Stage of Maturity of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaves

Assiéné Agamou Julien Armel, Fombang Nig Edith, Mbofung Carl Moses

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 90-103
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130325

This study aims to determine the influence of agro-ecological zone and stage of maturity on in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and iron bioavailability from Moringa oleifera.leaves. The young and mature leaves were collected from three farms in each agro-ecological zone in Cameroon and processed in powders. Nutrient contents (proteins, total and free iron), bioactive compounds (total fiber, total polyphenols, phytates), IVPD, and iron bioavailability were determined. The stage of maturity affects significantly the variations of total iron contents (90.10%) while the agro-ecological zone affects significantly the variations of total polyphenol (48.28%), total fiber (80.97%), and phytates (46.48%) contents. Total protein contents were affected by the interaction of both (35.88%). Mature leaves have higher total iron, bioactive compounds contents in the mean compared to young leaves, and whatever the agro-ecological zone and stage of maturity of leaves, the IVPD is near casein, and bioavailability of iron is low. The young leaves have higher IVPDs and lower bioavailability of iron while mature leaves have lower IVPDs and higher bioavailability of iron. To alleviate protein malnutrition and iron deficiency through the utilization of M. oleifera leaves, it’s necessary to consider the effects of stage of maturity and agro-ecological zone on bioactive compounds contents and their anti-nutritional properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal (Pb, Cd, Hg and As) Content of Some Pineapples Juice Produced in Informal Market in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Yolande Amoin Aké Assi Datté, Henri Godi Biégo, Lisette Gnigniri, Kouamé Mathias KoffI, Siaka Sanogo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 104-113
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130326

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the level of micropolluants contamination (mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) handcrafted pineapple juices, packaged in recovery bottles and sold on the outskirts of the city of Abidjan.

Study Design: Samples were collected from street vendors in four districts of Abidjan city (Marcory, Treichville, Cocody and Koumassi).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Central Food Hygiene Laboratory and Agribusiness between December 2019 and June 2020.

Methodology: 32 samples collected were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: It appears that traces of the few metallic micropollutters were found in pineapple juices at varying rates with sometimes exceeding the maximum values recommended for lead in 75% of the pineapple juices analyzed. Considering the municipalities, 100% of the juices collected from vendors in the commune of Cocody have arsenic concentrations exceeding the maximum regulatory values. Overall, Daily Exposure Doses (DDE) (0.024 10-4 mg/kg bw of mercury, 0.345 10-4 mg/kg bw of lead, 0.001 10-3 mg/kg pc of cadmium and 0.5 10-4 mg/kg bw of arsenic) are lower than the Previsional Tolerable Dose (PTD).

Conclusion: Therefore, can the risk be eliminated for the general population? While the concentrations of metallic micropolluants found in pineapple juices remain below the thresholds for mercury and cadmium, those of lead and arsenic are high, increasing the risk of adverse effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

How Can Dietary Habits Effects on Dysmenorrhea among Health Track Students – A Cross Sectional Study

Welayah A. Alammar, Fatima H. Albeesh, Tunny S. Purayidathil, Arafat M. Goja

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130327

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate whether dietary habits can affect the dysmenorrhea and irregular menstruation.

Design: A cross sectional study.

Setting: A total of 655 female students from Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU). A non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess their food habits.

Participants: Female students in health track in IAU with no health problem, pregnant or even lactating and age from 17 – 26 years were included.

Results: The severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly associated with the less intake of seafood (P= 0.007) and low consumption of nuts (P= 0.02). High sweet consumption contributed with pain increased significantly during the menstrual days (P= 0.002), as well as elevates the severity of dysmenorrhea (P= 0.04). Drinking less coffee contributes significantly to the undesired effect of dysmenorrhea (P= 0.04). While there were no significant association between dairy products intake and vegetables consumption with the severity of dysmenorrhea as well as irregular menstruation.

Conclusion: Regular consumption of seafood and nuts can alleviate the severity of dysmenorrhea. Eating too many sweets increased the severity of dysmenorrhea among 17 to 26 year old female.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and French Beans from Murang’a and Kiambu Counties, Kenya

Evans Kipkemoi, Warren A. Andayi, Eric C. Njagi, Brian Ptoton

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 121-132
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130328

Poor Pesticide-handling practices during production of tomatoes and French beans pose adverse health and environmental effects. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of pesticide residues in tomatoes and French beans grown and sold in Murang’a and Kiambu counties, Kenya. Samples were collected in farms and markets during the wet and dry seasons. Pesticide residues were extracted using the QuEChERS method and quantified using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. The recoveries of pesticides from spiked samples were within the acceptable range (70-120%) for quantitative pesticide residue methods. The concentration range of pesticides residues in tomatoes were: profenofos, <LOQ to 0.18 mg/Kg;   omethoate, <LOQ to 0.03 mg/Kg; indoxacarb, <LOQ to 0.05 mg/Kg; chlorantraniliprole <LOQ to 0.11 mg/Kg; spirotetramat <LOQ to 0.01 mg/Kg; and metalaxyl < LOQ to 0.02 mg/Kg. The concentration range of pesticides residues in French beans were: imidacloprid <LOQ to 0.29 mg/Kg; chlorantraniliprole <LOQ to 0.37 mg/Kg; spirotetramat <LOQ to 0.01 mg/Kg; indoxacarb <LOQ to 0.05 mg/Kg; and metalaxyl <LOQ to 0.02 mg/Kg. The concentrations of pesticide residues in tomatoes and French beans were below the Maximum Residue Levels set by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme and the European Union except for concentrations of omethoate in tomatoes, which were higher in 29% of analyzed samples. The presence of omethoate in tomatoes, whose use in vegetables  is banned, suggests poor pesticide handling practices by some tomato farmers in the two  counties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sesame Seed Oil (Black /White) as a Natural Antioxidant on the Oxidative and Frying Stability of Linseed Oil

Karnika Prakash, Satya Narayan Naik, Upasana Yadav

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 133-146
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1130329

Aims: In today's scenario, the oil industry is striving for natural and newly synthesized bioactive compounds due to their distinct nutritional, safety and health benefits over chemically synthesized antioxidants. Sesame seeds are conventionally perceived as the wealthy source of bioactive lignans. Both water-soluble and oil-soluble lignans in sesame oil (SO) and sesame cake have been proclaimed to have therapeutic benefits on humans. On the contrary, linseed oil (LO) due to its high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid is prone to oxidation. To enhance the oxidative stability index (OSI) shelf life of LO, optimal formulations and admixtures of bioactive components with different mechanisms were studied.

Study Design: Different combinations of oil bends were prepared using SO and LO and the quality characteristics were compared with the pure oils.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Rural development and technology, Indian Institute of Technology – Delhi, Delhi (India)

Methodology: Physical and biochemical analysis for the oil blends and pure oils were done. Along with that sensory and shelf life analysis of the fried products were also done using standard procedures.

Results: The oxidative stability of all the oil blends and pure oils were measured at 110°C, 120°C and 130°C. Out of all the ratios, 50:50 wt/wt of LO, WSO, BSO and their blends were exposed to deep fat frying. After frying blends were evaluated for physical and biochemical analysis. Fried potato chips were evaluated for its sensory attributes, moisture loss and fat absorption.

Conclusion: It is proposed that the OSI of LO was upgraded by blending. No significant changes were observed in the FTIR and SF/USF acid ratios of the blends and pure oils throughout the frying days implicit satisfying OSI. Sensory attributes, moisture loss and fat absorption exhibit no significant differences between potato chips fried in WSO, BSO and blends BSO: LO, WSO: LO over 5 days of frying.