Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and French Beans from Murang’a and Kiambu Counties, Kenya
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
Poor Pesticide-handling practices during production of tomatoes and French beans pose adverse health and environmental effects. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of pesticide residues in tomatoes and French beans grown and sold in Murang’a and Kiambu counties, Kenya. Samples were collected in farms and markets during the wet and dry seasons. Pesticide residues were extracted using the QuEChERS method and quantified using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. The recoveries of pesticides from spiked samples were within the acceptable range (70-120%) for quantitative pesticide residue methods. The concentration range of pesticides residues in tomatoes were: profenofos, <LOQ to 0.18 mg/Kg; omethoate, <LOQ to 0.03 mg/Kg; indoxacarb, <LOQ to 0.05 mg/Kg; chlorantraniliprole <LOQ to 0.11 mg/Kg; spirotetramat <LOQ to 0.01 mg/Kg; and metalaxyl < LOQ to 0.02 mg/Kg. The concentration range of pesticides residues in French beans were: imidacloprid <LOQ to 0.29 mg/Kg; chlorantraniliprole <LOQ to 0.37 mg/Kg; spirotetramat <LOQ to 0.01 mg/Kg; indoxacarb <LOQ to 0.05 mg/Kg; and metalaxyl <LOQ to 0.02 mg/Kg. The concentrations of pesticide residues in tomatoes and French beans were below the Maximum Residue Levels set by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme and the European Union except for concentrations of omethoate in tomatoes, which were higher in 29% of analyzed samples. The presence of omethoate in tomatoes, whose use in vegetables is banned, suggests poor pesticide handling practices by some tomato farmers in the two counties.
- French beans
- health effects
How to Cite
Ochilo WN, Nyamasyo GN, Kilalo D, Otieno W, Otipa M, Chege F, Karanja T, Lingeera EK. Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya. Sci Afr. 2019; 2:e00014.
Nguetti JH, Imungi JK, Okoth MW, Mitema ES, Mbacham WF, Wang’ombe J. Consumers’ awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi. Afr J Agric Res. 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Nderitu JH, Kasina MJ, Nyamasyo GN, Waturu CN, Aura J. Management of thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) on french beans (fabaceae) in Kenya: Economics of insecticide applications. J Entomol. 2008; 5(3):148-155.
Nyasani JO, Subramanian S, Poehling HM, Maniania NK, Ekesi S, Meyhöfer R. Optimizing western flower thrips management on French beans by combined use of beneficials and imidacloprid. Insects. 2015;6(1):279-296.
Sigei GK, Ngeno HK, Kibe AM, Mwangi M, Mutai MC. Challenges and strategies to improve tomato competitiveness along the tomato value chain in Kenya. Int J Bus Manag. 2014;9(9):205-212.
Wanjohi WJ, Wafula GO, Macharia CM. Integrated management of fusarium wilt-root knot nematode complex on tomato in central highlands of Kenya. Sustain. Agric Res. 2018;7(2):8-18.
Momanyi VN, Keraka MN, Abong’o DA, Warutere PN. Types and classification of pesticides used on tomatoes grown in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Eur J Nutr Food Saf. 2019;11(2):83-97.
Niassy S, Maniania NK, Subramanian S, Gitonga ML, Maranga R, Obonyo AB, Ekesi S. Compatibility of metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 with agrochemicals used in French bean production. Int J Pest Manag. 2012;58(2): 131-137.
Seif A, Varela AM, Michalik S, Lohr B. A guide to ipm in french beans production with emphasis on Kenya. ICIPE Science Press, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Momanyi VN, Margaret K, Abong’o DA, Warutere P. Farmers’ compliance to pesticide use standards in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Int J Innov Res Adv Stud. 2019; 6(10):67-73.
Marete GM, Shikuku VO, Lalah JO, Mputhia J, Wekesa VW. Occurrence of pesticides residues in French beans, tomatoes, and kale in Kenya, and their human health risk indicators. Environ Monit Assess. 2020:192(11):1-13.
Ngolo P, Nawiri M, Machocho A, Oyieke H. Pesticide residue levels in soil, water, kales and tomatoes in Ewaso Narok wetland, Laikipia, county, Kenya. J Sci Res Rep. 2019;1-11.
Inonda R, Njage E, Ngeranwa J, Mutai C. Determination of pesticide residues in locally consumed vegetables in Kenya. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol Ther. 2015:4(1):1-6.
Choi SM, Yoo SD, Lee BM. Toxicological characteristics of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004:7(1):1-23.
Sanborn M, Kerr KJ, Sanin LH, Cole DC, Bassil KL, Vakil C. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides: systematic review and implications for family doctors. Can Fam Physician. 2007;53(10):1712-1720.
Hertz-Picciotto I, Sass JB, Engel S, Bennett DH, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Lanphear B, Whyatt R. Organophosphate exposures during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment: recommendations for essential policy reforms. PLoS Med. 2018;15(10):e1002671.
Fairburn, W. A. Geology of the Fort Hall Area. Geological Survey of Kenya Report, 73; 1966.
Anastassiades M, Lehotay SJ, Štajnbaher D, Schenck FJ. Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/ partitioning and “dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce. J AOAC Int. 2003;86(2):412-431.
Anastassiades M, Scherbaum E, Tasdelen B, Stajnbaher D. Recent developments in QuEChERS methodology for pesticide multiresidue analysis. In: Ohkawa H, Miyagawa H, Lee PW, editors. Pesticide chemistry: crop protection, public health, environmental safety. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany; 2007.
Hill AR, Reynolds SL. Guidelines for in-house validation of analytical methods for pesticide residues in food and animal feeds. Analyst.1999;124(6): 953-958.
Rizzetti TM, Kemmerich M, Martins ML, Prestes OD, Adaime MB, Zanella R. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC–MS/MS. Food Chem. 2016;196:25-33.
Codex Alimentarius. Codex Alimentarius: Pesticide residues in food, maximum residue limits; extraneous maximum residue limits. Accessed 8 September 2020. Available:http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/codex-texts/dbs/pestres/en/
European Union. European Union pesticide database. Accessed: 8 September 2020. Available:https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=pesticide.residue.selection&language=EN
Pest Control Products Board. Registered conventional pest control products for use on crops. Pest Control Products Board (PCPB). Accessed 5 September 2020. Available:http://www.pcpb.go.ke/crops/.
Mutuku M, Njogu P, Nyaga G. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato based agrosystems in Kaliluni sub location, Kathiani District, Kenya. J Agric Sci Technol. 2014;16(2):34-44.
Bhandari G, Zomer P, Atreya K, Mol HG, Yang X, Geissen V. Pesticide residues in Nepalese vegetables and potential health risks. Environ Res. 2019;172:511-521.
Bonmatin JM, Giorio C, Girdami V, Goulson D, Kreutzweiser DP, Krupke C, et al. Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015;22(1):35-67.
Wauchope RD, Buttler TM, Hornsby AG, Augustijn-Beckers PWM, Burt JP. The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide properties database for environmental decision-making. In: Ware GW, editor. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 1992;123:1-36.
Tomlin CD. The Pesticide Manual: a World Compendium (11th Edition). The British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, UK; 1997.
Tomlin CDS. The e-Pesticide Manual. Indoxacarb. (13th Edition). PC CD-ROM, Version 3.0, 2003-04. Surrey, UK: British Crop Protection Council; 2003.
Lewis SE, Silburn DM, Kookana RS, Shaw M. Pesticide behavior, fate and effects in the tropics: an overview of the current state knowledge; 2016.
Ritter L, Solomon KR, Forget J, Stemeroff M, O’Leary C. A Review of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants. Apostila. 1995;1-149.
Moncada J. Spatial distribution of pesticide contamination potential around lake Naivasha, Kenya. MSc Thesis. International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences. 2001;1-110.
Fenik J, Tankiewicz M, Biziuk M. Properties and determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2011;30(6): 814-826.
Abstract View: 374 times
PDF Download: 204 times