Main Article Content
In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, amino acids and phenols. The psyllium seed has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in pan bread could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with psyllium seed flour (PSF) at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% were carried out to investigate the rheology properties of dough, baking performance, proximate compositions and physical properties of the pan bread. Partial substitution of WF with PSF increased the water absorption, arrival time and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility was reduced. Also, elasticity and energy were increased by addition of PSF. Pan bread supplemented with PSF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, while, weight was increased. PSF up to 15% could partially replace WF in pan bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber, amino acids content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that pan bread supplemented up to 15% PSF were acceptable to the panelists and there was significant difference in terms of appearance, crumb texture, crumb grain, crust color, taste, odor and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of PSF increased the minerals contents, amino acids contents and nutritional properties compared to the control (for pan bread).
Roberfroid MB. A European consensus of scientific concepts of functional foods. Nutrition. 2000;16(7-8):689–691.
Alu’datt MT, Ereifej K, Alli I, Alrababah M, Almajwal A, Masadeh N, Alhamad M. Effects of barley flour and barley protein isolate on chemical, functional, nutritional and biological properties of pita bread. Food Hydrocolloids. 2012;26:135-143.
Newman CW, Newman RK. A brief history of barley foods. Cereal Foods World. 2006; 51:4-7.
Jat RS, Reddy RN, Bansal R, Manivel P. Good agriculture practices, for Isbagol. ICAR Directorated of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research. Gujarat –India; 2015.
Ashwini RM, Monica RP, Deepa W. Characterization of Psyllium (Plantago ovata) polysaccharide and its uses. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2014;1-17.
Ziai SA, Larijani B, Akhoondzadeh S, Fakhrzadeh H, Fakhrzadeh Dastpak A, Bandarian F, Rezai A, Badi HN, Emami T. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2015;102:202-207.
Singh B. Psyllium as therapeutic and drug delivery agent. Int J Pharm. 2007;334(1–2):1–14.
Bedard AM, Lai GH, Wullschleger RD, Kincaid JG. Psyllium enriched pasta products and methods for making same. US Patent 5384144; 1995.
Samuelsen AB. The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review. J. Ethno Pharmacol. 2000;71:1–21.
Beara IN, Lesjak MM, Jovin EÐ, Balog KJ, Anaˇckov GT, Orˇcicì, DZ. Plantain (Plantago L.) species as novel sources of ﬂavonoid antioxidants. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2009;57:9268–9273.
Pawar H, Varkhade C. Isolation, characterization and investigation of Plantago ovata husk polysaccharide as super disinter grant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2014;69: 52–58.
Olivier SD. The long-term safety and tolerability of ispaghula husk. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. 2000;120:107–111.
Guo Q, Cui SW, Wang Q, Young JC. Fractionation and physicochemical characterization of gum. Carbohyd. Polym. 2008;73:35-43.
Sukhija S, Singh S, Riar CS. Analyzing the effect of whey protein concentrate and psyllium husk on various characteristics of biodegradable film from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome starch. Food Hydrocolloids. 2016;60:128–137.
Sivam AS, Sun-Waterhouse D, Siew YQ, Perera CO. Properties of bread dough with added fiber polysaccharides and phenolic antioxidants: A review,” Journal of Food Science. 2010;75(8):163-174.
El Sheikh, Dalia M. Rheological characteristics of Arabic gum suspension and Plantago seeds mucilage, Journal of American Science, 2014;10(11):18-24.
Koletta P, Irakli M, Papageorgiou M, Skendi A. Physicochemical and technological properties of highly enriched wheat breads with wholegrain non wheat flours. J Cereal Sci. 2014; 60(3):561–568.
Curie D, Dugum J, Bauman I. The influence of fungal amylase supplementation on amylolytic activity and baking quality of flour. International J. Food Sci. and Technology. 2002;37:673–680.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.18th edition, Washington DC; 2005.
FAO. Food energy. Methods of analysis and conversion factors. Food and Nutrition Paper 77. Report of a technical workshop, Rome; 3-6 December, 2002.
ASP NG, Johansson GG, Haller H, Siljestrom M. Rapid enzymatic assay of insoluble and dietary fiber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1983;31: 476-482.
Alsmeyer RH, Cuningham AE, Happich, M. L. Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Techno. 1974;28(7): 34-40.
Farag SA, El-Shirbeeny A, Nassef A. Physicochemical studies for preparing quick-cooking rice by using gamma irradiation. Annals of Agric Sci., Moshtohor. 1996;34:641-652.
AACC. International Methods approved of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 11th ed., American Association of Cereal Chemists, INC., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; 2012.
Matz SA. Bakery Technology and Engineering. The AVI Pub. Co., Westport, Connecticut; 1972.
AACC Approved method of the American Association of Cereal Chemists Published by American Association of Cereal Chemists Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A; 1983.
Romero-Baranzini AL, Rodriguez OG, Yanez-Faries GA, Barrron-Hoyos JM, Rayas-Duarte P. Chemical, Physicochemical, and Nutritional go (plantago ovata Forsk). J Cereal Chem. 2006;83(4):358-362.
Ziemichód A, Wójcik M, Rózyło R. Seeds of Plantago psyllium and Plantago ovata: Mineral composition, grinding, and use for gluten-free bread as substitutes for hydrocolloids. J Food Process Eng. 2018; 1-9.
Khalil Mona M, Hussein MA, Salaby MT, Ghonim JA. Nutritional and biological evaluation of high nutritive biscuits processed for primary school children. Proceeding of the First Arab Mansoura Conf. of Dairy Sci and Technol., J. Agric. Sci. 2002;131-142.
Hafez Hoda HA. Production and evaluation of some bakery products supplemented with soybean products. MSc. Thesis Food Sci and Technol., Dept., Faculty of Agric., Cairo Univ., Egypt; 2004.
Krystyjan M, Gumul D, Korus A, Korus J, Sikora M. Physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance of biscuits fortified with Plantago psyllium flour. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2018; 30(9):758-763.
Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Akintayo TE. Comparative Study on the Chemical and Amino Acid Composition of Some Nigerian Under-Utilized Legume Flours. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;5:34-38.
El Hadidy GS. Chemical, technological and biological studies on mulberry leaves and purslane in Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Food Technology Dep., Mansoura Univ., Egypt; 2014.
Fischer H, Yu N, Gray GR, Ralph J, Anderson L, Marletta JA. The gel forming polysaccharide of psyllium husk (Plantago ovata Forsk). Carbohydrate Research. 2004;339:2009–2017.
Sudha ML, Rajeswari G, Venkateswara Rao G. Effect of wheat and oat brans on the dough rheological and quality characteristics of instant vermicelli. Journal of Texture Studies; 2011.
Man S, Paucean A, Muste S, Anamaria POP, Muresan EA. Influence of Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology. 2017;74(1):33-34.
Kumar D, Pandey J, Kumar P, Raj V. Psyllium Mucilage and Its Use in Pharmaceutical Field: An Overview, J. Curr Synthetic Sys Biol. 2017;5(1):1-7.
Chakrabortty MK, Patel KV. Chemical composition of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed. J. Food Sci. Technol. 1992; 29:389-390.
Rosell CM, Rojas JA, Benedito de Barber, C. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids. 2001;15:75-81.
Czuchajowska A, Paszczynska B, Pomeranz Y. Functional properties of psyllium in Wheat-Based products. J. Cereal Chemistry. 1992;69(5):516-520.