Main Article Content
This study was conducted to assess the effect of garlic oil supplementation on intake, digestibility, performance and rumen function of goats. Thirty goats with initial average body weight of 6 ± 0.99 kg were randomly divided into five treatments with six goats each in a completely randomized design. The diets contained a control group without garlic oil (CA1) and diets supplemented with garlic oil at 20 g (GB2), 25 g (GC3), 30 g (GD4) and 35 g (GE5). Results showed that acid detergent fibre and lignin (66.02 and 52.37%) digestibility, total volatile fatty acid with acetate (88.62 mM and 69.68mol/100mol), feed conversion ratio (9.47), ammonia nitrogen (12.39mg/dl), methane (21.96mol/mol) and protozoa (8.93 x 108 cfµ/mol) of goats reared on CA1 were (P < 0.05) higher than those on test diets (GB2, GC3, GD4 and GE5). Goats fed on GC3 and GD4 diets had higher (P < 0.05) nutrients digestibility with rumen parameters, daily weight gain and intake compared with those on CA1, CB2 and GE5 diets. The ether extract intake (58.09%) and digestibility (64.03%) in goats reared on GE5 were (P < 0.05) higher than those on other diets. Ash intake and digestibility, rumen pH, iso-butyrate, valerate, iso-valerate and total fungi count were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment diets. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic oil to treatment diets improved intake, digestibility, performance and rumen function of goats, indicating garlic oil as alternative additive to improve poor quality feeds.
Salem HB. Nutritional management to improve shee pand goat performances in semi arid regions. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2010;39:337–347.
Ajayi FT, Ogunleke F, Adeina A, Durotoye ES. Performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of West African dwarf goats fed ensiled mixtures of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with lime bean, African yam and pigeon pea. Journal of Natural Science. 2012;46:694–702.
Khaing KT, Loh TC, Ghizan S, Halim RA, Samsudin AA. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass. Malaysian Journal of Animal Science. 2015;18(1):87–98.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical Microbiology Review. 1999;12:564–582.
Kirisci A, Kamalak A. Supplementing sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) hay with garlic oil; effects on rumen in-vitro gas production, digestibility and ammonia production. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2019;31(4):1–5.
Molero R, Ibara M, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Losa R. Effects of specific blend of essential oil compounds on voluntary on dry matter crude protein degradability in heifers fed diets with different forage to concentrate ratios. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2004;114:91–104.
AFRC. Agricultural and Food Research Council, energy and protein rewiurement of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford. 1995;159.
Moss AR, Jouany JP, Newbold J. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Ann. Zootech. 2000;49: 231–253.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis 15th Edition. Association of official analytical chemist, Washington, DC. 1990;2044.
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science. 1991;74:3583–3597.
Corredu F, Nudda A, Battacome G, Boe R, Francesconi AHD, Pulna G. Effects of grape seed supplementation, alone or association with linseed in ruminal metabolism in Sards dairy sheep. Animal Feed Science Technology. 2015;199:61–72.
Mor P, Bals B, Kumar S, Tyagi N, Reen JK, Tyagi B, Choudhury PK, Pyagi AK. Influence of replacing concentrate mixture with AFEX pellets on rumen fermentation, blood profile and acetamide content in the rumen of crossbred (Alpine x Beetle) female goats. Small Ruminant Research. 2019;170:109–115.
Corredu F, Fancello F, Chessa L, Afzori AS, Pulina G, Nudda A. Effects of supplementation with exhausted myrtle berries on rumen function of dairy sheep. Small Ruminant Research. 2019;170:51–61.
SAS. Statistical analysis system. User’s Guide Version 9.0 SAS Instsitute, Inc. Cary North Carolina USA; 2004.
Duncan DG. Multiple range and multiple F-tests, Biometrics. 1955;11:1–42 .
National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of goats: Angora dairy and meat in temperate and tropical countries. National Academics Press, Washington, D.C. USA. ISBN13: 97803031851. 1981; 91.
Rafiee-Yarandi H, Alikhani M, Ghorbani GR, Heydani M, Rezamand P. Dietary protein level and corn processing method: Intake, digestibility and feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows. Livestock Science. 2019;221:19–27.
Dohme F, Machmuler A, Wasserfallen A, Kreuzer M. Ruminal methanogenesis as influenced by individual fatty acids supplemented to complete ruminant diets. Lett. Appli. Microbiol. 2001;32:47–51.
Candyrine SCL, Jahromi MF, Ebrahimi M, Chen WL, Rezaei S, Goh YM, Abdullah N, Liang JB. Oil supplementation improved growth and diet digestibility in goats and sheep fed fattening diet. Asian –Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2019;32(4):533–530.
Zhang CM, Guo YQ, Yuan ZP. Effect of octadeca carbon fatty acids on microbial fermentation, methanogenesis and microbial flora in-vitro. Animal Feed Science Technology. 2008;146:259-269.
Kongmun P, Wanapat M, Pakdee P, Navanukraw, Yu Z. Manipulation of rumen fermentation and ecology of swamp buffalo by coconut oil and garlic powder supplementation. Livestock Science. 2011; 135:84–92.
Shokrollahi B, Hesami SM, Baneh H. The effect of garlic extract on growth, haematology and cell-mediated immune response of new born goat kids. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2016;117(2):225–232.
Ahmed AA, Bassuomy NI, Awod ES, Aiad AM, Mohammed SA. Adding natural juice of vegetables and fruitage to ruminant diets (B) nutrients utilization microbial safety and immunity, effect of diets supplemented lemon, onion and garlic juice fed to growing buffalo calves. World Journal of Agricultural Science. 2009;5(4): 456–465.
Yang L, Guang-Ning Z, Hong-Jian X, Shwang Z, Xiu-Jing D, Cong L, Xing-Yi Z, Hong-Bo Z, Yong-Gen Z. Effects of replacing alfalfa hay with Moringa oleifera leaves and peduncles on intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows. Livestock Science. 2019;220: 211–216.
France J, Dijkstra J. Volatile fatty acid production. In: Dijstra J, Forbes JM, France J. (Eds.) quantitative aspects of ruminant digestion and metabolism, 2nd edition. CABI Publishing: 2005;157–175.
Pastra AK, Saxena J. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition. Journ. Sci. Food Agric. 2011;91:24–37.
Busquet M, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Carro MD, Kamel C. Effect of garlic oil and four of its compounds or rumen microbial fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science. 2005;88:4393–4404.
Eastridge ML, Bucci PB, Ribeiro CVDM. Feeding equivalent concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber from alfalfa hay, grass hay, wheat straw, and whole cottonseed in corn silage based diets to lactating cows. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2009;150:86–94.
Berthiaume R, Benchaar C, Chaves AV, Tremblay GF, Castonguay Y, Bertrand A, Bélanger G, Michaud R, Lafrenière C, McAllister T, Brito AF. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrate concentration in alfalfa on fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in continuous culture. Journal of Dairy Science. 2010;93:693–700.
Wanapat M, Khejorsart P, Pakdee P, Wanapat S. Effect of supplementation of garlic powder on rumen ecology and digestibility of nutrients in ruminants. Journ. Sci. Food Agric. 2008;88:3497–3503.
Cardozo PW, Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Kamel C. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science. 2004;82:3230–3236.
Wang JP, Yoo JS, Jang HD, Lee JH, Cho JH, Kim IH. Effect of dietary fermented garlic by Weissella korrensis powder on growth performance, blood characteristics and immune response of growing pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Animal Science. 2011;89(7):2123–2131.
Patra AK, Yu Z. Essentials oil modify rumen bacterial compositions in-vitro as revealed by micro array analysis. Journal of Animal Science, 91(E-suppl.2/J) Journal of Dairy Science. 2013;96(E–suppl.1):713.
Candyrine SCL, Liang JB, Goh YM. In-vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of goats and sheep supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Anim. Prod Sci. 2016;57:1607–1612.
Nkrumah JD, Okine EK, Mathison GW. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance and feeding behaviour with metabolic rate, methane production and energy partitioning in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 2006;84:145–153.