Main Article Content
A study on comparative assessment of the microbial load of beef and chicken meat collected at different hours of the day in Ekpoma town market was carried out. Samples were purchased at 8am, 1pm and 5pm and taken to the laboratory for microbial load counts. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD). Result from the study revealed that microbial load of beef for Diluent 1 (Dil.-1) was less at 8am, having 30.0 log10 CFU/g as compared with 43.5 and 47.0 observed at 1pm and 5pm respectively. Diluent 2 (Dil.-2) showed similar results of less counts at 8am (22.0 log10 CFU/g) compared with 31.5 and 45.0 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively, as well as Diluent 3 (Dil.-3), which recorded similar results of less microbial load at the early hours of the day. The result from the microbial load count of chicken was not affected by the time (hours) of collection, as values were not significantly (P>0.05) different. Diluent 1 (Dil.-1) had the least count of 22.0 log10 CFU/g at 8am compared with a high count of 32.5 at 1pm and a less count of 24.5 at 5pm. Similarly, Diluent 2 (Dil.-2) recorded a microbial count of 20.5 log10 CFU/g at 8am compared with 24.5 and 22.5 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively. While Diluent 3 (Dil.-3) had 14.5 log 10 CFU/g at 8am compared with 18.5 and 17.5 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively. Microbial load of chicken meat was lowest in the morning (8am), high in the afternoon (1pm) and lower in the evening (5pm). Here, the rate of exposure of chickens in the refrigerator to the atmosphere affected its microbial load. The result did not follow the trend of higher microbial load as time of the day progressed, observed in beef. Results on a comparative assessment of the microbial load of beef and chicken meat further revealed that microbial load in beef was higher than chicken, as beef was completely exposed on a table platform in the market, while chicken was stored in the refrigerator when sold in the market. It also revealed that microbial load concentration of beef and chicken decreased as dilution rate of concentration increased, as observed in Dil.1 – 3. Hence, home consumers should buy beef meat in the early hours of the day, and chicken meat in the morning and evening from the market, in order to check the risk of microbial contamination.
Bacha K, Mehari T, Ashenafi M. Microbiological study of walkalim, a traditionsl Ethiopian fermented sausage. Ethiop. J. Biol.Sci. 2007;6:129-145.
Zakpaa HD, Imbeah CM, Mak-Mensah EE. Microbial characterization of fermented meat product on some selected markets in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2009;3:340-346.
Adeyemo OK. Unhygienic operation of a city abattoir in South Western Nigeria: Environmental implication. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management. 2002;4(1):23–28.
Olaoye OA, Nilude AA. Investigation on the potential use of biological agents in the extension of fresh beef in Nigeria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2010;26:1445-1454,
Dol: 10. 1007/
Nouichi S, Hamdi TM. Superficial bacterial contamination of Ovine and Bovine Carcass at El-Harrach slaughter house, Algeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009;38(3):474–485.
Iroha IR, Ugbo EC, Ilang DC, Oji AE, Ayogu TE. Bacterial contamination of raw meat sold in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health Epid. 2011;3(2):49–53.
Hassan AN, Farooqui A, Khan A, Khan AY, Kazmi SU. Microbial contamination of raw meat and its environment in retail shops in Karachi, Pakistan. J. Infect Dev. Cties. 2010;4(6):382-388.
Adu-Gyamfi AW, Torghy-Tetteh, Appiah V. Microbiological quality of chicken sold in Accra and Determination of DIO-value of E. coli. Food Nutri. Sci. 2012;3(5):693-698.
Doyle ME. Microbial food spoilage - Losses and control strategies. A brief review of the literature FRI Briefings; 2007. Available:www.wiscedu/fril
Ali NH, Faroqui A, Khan A, Khan AY, Kazmi SU. Microbial contamination of raw meat and its environment in retail shops in Karachi Pakistan. J. Infect. Dev. Cties. 2010;14:53-55.
Okonko IO, Adejoye OD, Ogunnusi TA, Fajobi FA, Shittu OB. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. African J. Biotechnology. 2008a;7(3):617-621.
Clarence SY, Obinna CN, Shalom NC. Assessment of bacteriological quality of ready to eat food (meat pie) in Benin City metropolis, Nigeria. Afr. Jour. Microbial Research. 2009;3(6):390-395.
Gill CO, Bryant J, Bremeton DA. Microbial conditions of sheep carcasses from conventional or inverted dressing processes. J. Food prot. 2000;63(9):1291-1294.
Foley SL, Lynne AM. Food animal-associated Salmonella challenges. Pathogenecity and antimicrobial resistance. J. Anim. Sci. 2008;86:E173-E187.
Fredrick OAD, Garuba J, AddanneI. Macmillan Nigeria Social Studies Atlas. Pub. Macmillan Education. 2007;8-46.
Olutola PO, Famrurewa O, Sountag HG. An introduction to general microbiology – A practical approach; 1991.
SAS. Statistical analysis system. User’s Guide Version 9.0 SAS Instsitute, Inc. Cary North Carolina USA; 2004.
Bradeaba K, Sivakumaar PK. Assessment of microbiological quality of beef, mutton and pork and its environment in retail shops in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2013;3(1).
Okoh PI, Adelani AS, Salau TA. Effect of cooking methods on the microbial load of beef collected at different hours in Ekpoma Town Market. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;7(1):1-5.
Paul B, Sylvia AB (). Microbiological quality of meat at the abattoir and butchery levels in Kampala City, Uganda. International Journal of Food Safety. 2014;16:29–35.