Response of Bioactive Phytochemicals in Vegetables and Fruits to Environmental Factors
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
This review focused on the influence of environmental systems and/or factors including high tunnel, UV and visible light, fertilization, and irrigation on bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Most studies reported that high tunnel reduced chicoric acid and luteolin in vegetables including lettuce and pac choi, and fruits including raspberry and tomato versus open field, although a few studies demonstrated that high tunnel did not significantly impact on the bioactive compounds. Light including UV such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-A, and UV-B, and visible light especially red and blue light, significantly stimulated biosynthesis of anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics, and promoted their contents in vegetables such as onion and spinach, and fruits for example blueberry and strawberry. The effect of fertilization including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on bioactive phytochemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols) in vegetables (broccoli, kale) or fruits (tomato) varied among the cultivars. Water deficit usually increased anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids in vegetables such as lettuce and red beet, and fruits including grape and pomegranate. Taken together, the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits in response to environmental factors were species- and varieties- dependent. The negative effect of environmental factors on bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits can be overcome by selecting appropriate cultivars, while the positive effect can be further manipulated in horticultural production for potential consumer’s health benefits.
- high tunnel
How to Cite
Birt DF, Hendrich S, Wang W. Dietary agents in cancer prevention: Flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2001;90:157–177.
Garcia-Salas P, Morales-Soto A, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Phenolic-compound-extraction systems for fruit and vegetable samples. Molecules. 2010;15:8813–8826. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15128813
Zhang YJ, Gan RY, Li S, et al. Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules. 2015;20:21138–21156. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219753
Oh MM, Carey EE, Rajashekar CB. Antioxidant phytochemicals in lettuce grown in high tunnels and open field. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology. 2011;52:133–139.
Gimenez C, Otto R, Castilla N. Productivity of leaf and root vegetable crops under direct cover. Scientia Horticulturae. 2002; 94:1–11.
Both AJ, Reiss E, Sudal JF, et al. Evaluation of a Manual Energy Curtain for Tomato Production in High Tunnels. HortTechnology. 2007;467–472.
De Villiers DS, Wien HC, Reid JE, Albright LD. Energy Use and Yields in Tomato Production: Field, High Tunnel, and Greenhouse Compared for the Northern Tire of the USA. Acta Horticulturae. 2011;373–380. Available:https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.893.34
Powell M, Gundersen B, Cowan J, et al. The effect of open-ended high tunnels in western Washington on late blight and physiological leaf roll among five tomato cultivars. Plant Disease. 2014;98:1639–1647.
Marshall K, Erich S, Hutton M, et al. Nitrogen availability from compost in high tunnel tomato production. Compost Science & Utilization. 2016;24:147–158. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2015.1102663
Janke RR, Altamimi ME, Khan M. The use of high tunnels to produce fruit and vegetable crops in North America. Agricultural Sciences. 2017;08:692–715. Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2017.87052
Mampholo BM, Maboko MM, Soundy P, Sivakumar D. Variety-specific responses of lettuce grown in a gravel-film technique closed hydroponic system to N supply on yield, morphology, phytochemicals, mineral content and safety. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2018;17:2447–2457.
Mashabela MN, Selahle KM, Soundy P, et al. Bioactive Compounds and Fruit Quality of Green Sweet Pepper Grown under Different Colored Shade Netting during Postharvest Storage: Photo-selective netting and pepper quality…. Journal of Food Science. 2015;80:H2612–H2618.
Mudau AR, Soundy P, Mudau FN. Response of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) to photoselective nettings on growth and postharvest quality. HortScience. 2017;52:719–724.
Ntsoane LLM, Soundy P, Jifon J, Sivakumar D. Variety-specific responses of lettuce grown under the different-coloured shade nets on phytochemical quality after postharvest storage. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2016;91:520–528. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2016.1178080
Stagnari F, Galieni A, Pisante M. Drought stress effects on crop quality. In: Ahmad P (Ed) Water Stress and Crop Plants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. 2016;375–392.
Zikalala BO, Nkomo M, Araya H, et al. Nutritional quality of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) as affected by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisation. South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 2017;34:79–86.
Robbins RJ. Phenolic Acids in Foods: An Overview of Analytical Methodology. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013;51:2866–2887. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026182t
Dixon RA, Paiva NL. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell. 1995;7:1085
Ignat I, Volf I, Popa VI. A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry. 2011;126: 1821–1835. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.026
Ayella AK, Trick HN, Wang W. Enhancing lignan biosynthesis by over-expressing pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase in transgenic wheat. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2007;51:1518–1526. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700233
Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chemistry. 2006;99:191–203.
Abuajah CI, Ogbonna AC, Osuji CM. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52: 2522–2529. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1396-5
Johnson EJ. The role of carotenoids in human health. Nutrition in clinical care. 2002;5:56–65
Luthria DL, Mukhopadhyay S, Krizek DT. Content of total phenolics and phenolic acids in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits as influenced by cultivar and solar UV radiation. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006;19:771–777. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2006.04.005
Jett LW. High tunnels. In: A guide to the manufacture, performance, and potential of plastics in agriculture. Elsevier. 2017;107–116.
Espí E, Salmerón A, Fontecha A, et al. Plastic films for agricultural applications. Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting. 2006;22:85–102. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/8756087906064220
Galinato SP, Miles CA. Economic profitability of growing lettuce and tomato in western Washington under high tunnel and open-field production systems. HortTechnology. 2013;453–461.
Zhao X, Iwamoto T, Carey EE. Antioxidant capacity of leafy vegetables as affected by high tunnel environment, fertilisation and growth stage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007;87:2692– 2699. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3032
Zhao X, Carey EE, Young JE, et al. Influences of organic fertilization, high tunnel environment, and postharvest storage on phenolic compounds in lettuce. HortScience. 2007;42:71–76
Woolley A, Sumpter S, Lee M, et al. Accumulation of mineral nutrients and phytochemicals in lettuce and tomato grown in high tunnel and open field. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2009;10:125–138. Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2019.101011
Vox G, Schettini E. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films. Journal of Agricultural Engineering 2013;44:11. Available:https://doi.org/10.4081/jae.2013.e11
Kamweru PK, Ndiritu FG, Kinyanjui T, et al. UV Absorption and dynamic mechanical analysis of polyethylene films. International Journal of physical Science. 2015;9:545-555.
Palonen P, Pinomaa A, Tommila T. The influence of high tunnel on yield and berry quality in three floricane raspberry cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 2017;214:180–186. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.11.049
Gruda N. Impact of environmental factors on product quality of greenhouse vegetables for fresh consumption. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 2005;24:227-247.
García-Macías P, Ordidge M, Vysini E, et al. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55:10168–10172. Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/jf071570m
Frohnmeyer H. Ultraviolet-B radiation-mediated responses in plants. Balancing damage and protection. Plant Physiology. 2003;133:1420–1428. Available:https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.030049
Do Nascimento NC, Menguer PK, Sperotto RA, et al. Early changes in gene expression induced by acute UV exposure in leaves of Psychotria brachyceras, a bioactive alkaloid accumulating plant. Molecular Biotechnology. 2013;54:79–91. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12033-012-9546-3
Hahlbrock K, Scheel D. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. 23.
Verdaguer D, Jansen MAK, Llorens L, et al. UV-A radiation effects on higher plants: Exploring the known unknown. Plant Science. 2017;255:72–81.
Johnson CB, Kirby J, Naxakis G, Pearson S. Substantial UV-B-mediated induction of essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Phytochemistry. 1999;51: 507–510.
Gerhardt KE, Lampi MA, Greenberg BM. The effects of far‐red light on plant growth and flavonoid accumulation in Brassica napus in the presence of ultraviolet B radiation. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2008;84:1445-1454.
Velikova VB. Isoprene as a tool for plant protection against abiotic stresses. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2008;3:1–15. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/17429140701858327
Wade HK, Bibikova TN, Valentine WJ, Jenkins GI. Interactions within a network of phytochrome, cryptochrome and UV-B phototransduction pathways regulate chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis leaf tissue: Chalcone synthase photoregulation. The Plant Journal. 2002; 25:675–685.
Chappell J, Hahlbrock K. Transcription of plant defence genes in response to UV light or fungal elicitor. Nature. 1984;311: 76–78.
Jenkins GI. Structure and function of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 2014;29:52–57. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2014.09.004
Agati G, Brunetti C, Di Ferdinando M, et al. Functional roles of flavonoids in photoprotection: New evidence, lessons from the past. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2013;72:35–45.
Gangadhar BH, Mishra RK, Pandian G, Park SW. Comparative study of color, pungency, and biochemical composition in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) under different light-emitting diode treatments. HortScience. 2012;47:1729–1735.
Wu G, Spalding EP. Separate functions for nuclear and cytoplasmic cryptochrome 1 during photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis seedlings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007;104:18813–18818. Available:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705082104
Piovene C, Orsini F, Bosi S, et al. Optimal red:blue ratio in led lighting for nutraceutical indoor horticulture. Scientia Horticulturae. 2015;193:202–208.
Tinyane PP, Sivakumar D, Soundy P. Influence of photo-selective netting on fruit quality parameters and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 2013;161:340–349. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.06.024
Li J, Zhu Z, Gerendás J. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on total phenolics and antioxidant activity in two genotypes of leaf mustard. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2008; 31:1642–1655. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160802244860
Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ. Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC Press; 2015.
Cakmak I. The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 2005;168:521–530. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200420485
Yousaf M, Li J, Lu J, et al. Effects of fertilization on crop production and nutrient-supplying capacity under rice-oilseed rape rotation system. Scientific Reports; 2005.
Bongue-Bartelsman M, Phillips DA. Nitrogen stress regulates gene expression of enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway of tomato [anthocyane]. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 1995;33: 539-546.
Bryant JP, Chapin FS, Klein DR. Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos. 1983;40:357. Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/3544308
González-Chavira MM, Herrera-Hernández MG, Guzmán-Maldonado H, Pons-Hernández JL. Controlled water deficit as abiotic stress factor for enhancing the phytochemical content and adding-value of crops. Scientia Horticulturae. 2018;234: 354–360. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.02.049
Gray D, Pallardy S, Garrett H, Rottinghaus G. Acute drought stress and plant age effects on alkamide and phenolic acid content in purple coneflower roots. Planta Medica. 2003;69:50–55.
Gómez-Caravaca AM, Verardo V, Segura-Carretero A, et al. Phenolic compounds and saponins in plants grown under different irrigation regimes. In: Polyphenols in Plants. Elsevier. 2014;37–52
Niculcea M, Martinez-Lapuente L, Guadalupe Z, et al. Characterization of phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera L. ‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Graciano’ Subjected to Deficit Irrigation during Berry Development; 2015.
Deluc LG, Quilici DR, Decendit A, et al. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:212.
Mena P, Galindo A, Collado-González J, et al. Sustained deficit irrigation affects the colour and phytochemical characteristics of pomegranate juice: Sustained deficit irrigation affects phenolics and colour of pomegranate juice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2013;93:1922–1927.
Pék Z, Daood H, Nagyné M, et al. Effect of environmental conditions and water status on the bioactive compounds of broccoli. Open Life Sciences. 2013;8:777-787.
Su X, Xu J, Rhodes D, et al. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato. Food Chemistry. 2016;202:184–188. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.128
Ordidge M, García-Macías P, Battey NH, et al. Phenolic contents of lettuce, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry crops cultivated under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency. Food Chemistry. 2010;119:1224–1227. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.039
Kumari R, Prasad MNV. Effects of UV-B Pretreatment on essential oil components, health sensory secondary metabolites and antioxidant potential of coleus aromaticus. Pharmaceutical Research; 2017.
Manukyan A. Effects of PAR and UV‐B radiation on herbal yield, bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity of some medicinal plants under controlled environmental conditions. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2013;89: 406-414.
Zhang XR, Chen YH, Guo QS, et al. Short-term UV-B radiation effects on morphology, physiological traits and accumulation of bioactive compounds in Prunella vulgaris L. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2017;12:348–354. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1365179
Fan X, Zang J, Xu Z, et al. Effects of different light quality on growth, chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll biosynthesis precursors of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2013;35:2721–2726.
Deng M, Qian H, Chen L, et al. Influence of pre-harvest red light irradiation on main phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts. Food Chemistry. 2017;222:1–5. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.157
Chen X, Xue X, Guo W, et al. Growth and nutritional properties of lettuce affected by mixed irradiation of white and supplemental light provided by light-emitting diode. Scientia Horticulturae. 2016; 200:111-118.
Baek GY, Kim MH, Kim CH, et al. The Effect of LED light combination on the anthocyanin expression of lettuce. IFAC Proceedings Volumes. 2013;46:120–123. Available:https://doi.org/10.3182/20130327-3-JP-3017.00029
Li Q, Kubota C. Effects of supplemental light quality on growth and phytochemicals of baby leaf lettuce. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2009;67:59–64. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.06.011
Stutte GW, Edney S, Skerritt T. Photoregulation of bioprotectant content of red leaf lettuce with light-emitting diodes. HortScience. 2009;44:79–82.
Taulavuori K, Pyysalo A, Taulavuori E, Julkunen-Tiitto R. Responses of phenolic acid and flavonoid synthesis to blue and blue-violet light depends on plant species. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2018;150:183–187. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2018.03.016
Amoozgar A, Mohammadi A, Sabzalian MR. Impact of light-emitting diode irradiation on photosynthesis, phytochemical composition and mineral element content of lettuce cv. Grizzly. Photosynthetica. 2017;55:85–95.
Bliznikas Z, Zukauskas A, Samuolienė G, et al. Effect of supplementary pre-harvest LED lighting on the antioxidant and nutrition properties of green vegetables. Acta Horticulturae. 2012;85–91.
Jones RB, Imsic M, Franz P, et al. High nitrogen during growth reduced glucoraphanin and flavonol content in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) heads. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2007;47:1498-1505.
Kopsell DA, Kopsell DE, Curran-Celentano J. Carotenoid pigments in kale are influenced by nitrogen concentration and form. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007;87:900–907.
Galieni A, Di Mattia C, De Gregorio M, et al. Effects of nutrient deficiency and abiotic environmental stresses on yield, phenolic compounds and antiradical activity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Scientia Horticulturae. 2005;187:93–101.
Coria-Cayupán YS, Sánchez de Pinto MI, Nazareno MA. Variations in bioactive substance contents and crop yields of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated in soils with different fertilization treatments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009;57:10122-10129.
Perner H, Rohn S, Driemel G, et al. Effect of nitrogen species supply and mycorrhizal colonization on organosulfur and phenolic compounds in onions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56: 3538–3545. Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/jf073337u
Khan MY, Haque MM, Molla AH, et al. Antioxidant compounds and minerals in tomatoes by Trichoderma -enriched biofertilizer and their relationship with the soil environments. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2017;16:691–703.
Riahi A, Hdider C. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of organically grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars as affected by fertilization. Scientia Horticulturae. 2013;151:90–96. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.12.009
Simonne AH, Fuzere J M, Simonne E, et al. Effects of nitrogen rates on chemical composition of yellow grape tomato grown in a subtropical climate. Journal of plant nutrition. 2007;30:927-935.
Taber H, Perkins-Veazie P, Li S, White W, Rodermel S, Xu, Y. Enhancement of tomato fruit lycopene by potassium is cultivar dependent. HortScience. 2008;43: 159–165.
Kopsell DA, Barickman TC, Sams CE, McElroy JS. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur on biomass production and carotenoid and glucosinolate concentrations in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55:10628–10634.
Barreales D, Malheiro R, Pereira JA, et al. Effects of irrigation and collection period on grapevine leaf (Vitis vinifera L. var. Touriga Nacional): Evaluation of the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties. Scientia Horticulturae. 2049;245:74–81. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.09.073.
Malejane DN, Tinyani P, Soundy P, et al. Deficit irrigation improves phenolic content and antioxidant activity in leafy lettuce varieties. Food Science & Nutrition. 2018;6: 334–341. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.55991.
Sahin U, Kuslu Y, Kiziloglu FM, Cakmakci T. Growth, yield, water use and crop quality responses of lettuce to different irrigation quantities in a semi-arid region of high altitude. 2014;9:195-202.
Stagnari F, Galieni A, Speca S, Pisante M. Water stress effects on growth, yield and quality traits of red beet. Scientia Horticulturae. 2014;165:13–22.
Peña ME, Artés-Hernández F, Aguayo E, et al. Effect of sustained deficit irrigation on physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds and postharvest life of pomegranate fruit (cv. ‘Mollar de Elche’). Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2013;86:171–180. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2013.06.034.
Enfissi EMA, Nogueira M, Bramley PM, Fraser PD. The regulation of carotenoid formation in tomato fruit. The Plant Journal. 2017;89:774–788. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13428
Abstract View: 1966 times
PDF Download: 913 times