European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 2020-02-16T08:13:26+00:00 European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> The Anti-nutritional Effect of Phytate on Zinc, Iron and Calcium Bioavailabilities of Some Cereals Staple Foods in Zaria, Nigeria 2020-02-16T08:13:26+00:00 A. Amos A. Alvan A. Florence <p><strong>Aim of Study:</strong> To evaluate the effect of phytate on the bioavailabilities of zinc, iron and calcium of some cereals staple foods in Zaria, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Experimental.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study:</strong> Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> <em>Tuwon surfafen masara</em> (TSM) was prepared by first milling the processed maize<em>.</em> <em>Tuwon masara</em> (TM) and Pap were prepared using standard local preparation methods. Phytic acid content was determined according to the method described by Reddy; The minerals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; AOAC 1990. Data was analysed with one way ANOVA and differences were considered significant at <em>P </em>= .05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The ratios of Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe, Phytate:Zn for <em>Tuwon surfafen masara</em> were found to be 0.0026, 0.197 and 0.429 respectively. While that of <em>Tuwon masara</em> was 0.0044, 0.127 and 0.376 respectively. Accordingly pap showed a phytate to mineral ratios of 0.0025, 0.043 and 0.162 for Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn respectively. The ratios of Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn for local rice (LR) was found to be 0.0075, 0.110 and 0.625 respectively. While that of foreign rice (FR) was 0.0031, 0.046 and 0.266 respectively. The phytate to mineral ratios of all the staple foods in the present study falls below the critical values of &gt;0.24, &gt;1 and &gt;18 for Phytate:ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn respectively which indicate good bioavailability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result obtained showed that the bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn in TSM, TM, Pap, LR and FR in Zaria, Nigeria is not affected by their phytic acid contents.</p> 2020-02-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integration of Oyster and Milky Mushroom Flour to Underutilized Pulses for the Development of Mushroom Analogues 2020-02-16T08:13:24+00:00 T. R. Thirumuruga Ponbhagavathi S. Kanchana G. Hemalatha S. Vellaikumar K. Kalpana <p>Mushrooms are considered to be a healthy food as they are low in fat, high in protein with good biological value and antioxidant properties. Mushrooms also contain appreciable amounts of dietary fiber. But their quality starts deteriorating immediately after the harvest. On the other hand, horse gram and cowpea have limited utilization due to the presence of anti nutritional factor. In order to extend the shelf life of mushrooms with added value and breakdown the limit of utilization of horse gram and cowpea, extrusion processing has been carried out to develop mushroom analogues through the combination of mushrooms with those underutilized pulses. A formulation comprising 50-75% of pulses and 25-50% mushrooms was made up and extruded with feed moisture content of 12%, an extrusion temperature of 120°C and a screw speed of 150 rpm. The developed products had protein content ranging from 23.01 to 24.56% with increased antioxidant and <em>in-vitro</em>- digestibility properties. Addition of mushroom flour increased the Water Absorption Index (WAI) and decreased the Water Solubility Index (WSI). Incorporation of oyster mushroom powder at 25% and 50% along with cowpea and horse gram flour was found most acceptable in terms of texture and other organoleptic attributes. Developed mushroom analogues can act as a novel vegetarian protein rich convenience product in the market to improve nutritional status of the population.</p> 2020-02-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Wet and Dry Seasons on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Vended Street Foods in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis 2020-02-13T11:04:57+00:00 G. I. Oyet D. B. Kiin-Kabari M. O. Akusu S. C. Achinewhu <p>The distribution patterns of PAHs in selected ready-to-eat street foods in parts of Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated during wet and dry seasons in 3 locations (Makoba-station 1, Elekahia-station 2 and Rivers State University-station 3). The study was carried out using a complete randomized design in three factorial experiments (Factors A, B and C). Factor A represented Season, B Location and C Street Vended foods samples. The selected food samples were Roasted plantain (RP1-3), Roasted Fish (RF1-3), Roasted Yam (RY1-3), Meat Pie (MP1-3), Suya (SY1-3) and Doughnut (DN1-3). The foods were sampled twice each season and the mean results recorded. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used for the identification and evaluation of the presence of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs). Percentage distribution of PAHs in street vended foods during the wet and dry season showed naphthalene value of RY1:57.6% dry and RY1 Not Detected (ND) wet season, MP2: 10.7% dry and MP2: 3.4% wet. Higher naphthalene values distribution during dry season (DN1: 59.6%) was observed, with corresponding lower values recorded during the wet season (DN1: 43.3%). RP1: 10.4% wet and RY1: 19.4% wet while RP1: 9.6% dry and RY1: 2.6% dry showed lower percentage of Flouranthene values during the dry season compared with higher values obtained for the wet season. Chrysene values (RP1: 10.9% wet, RP1: 10.0% dry, SY2: 69.2% wet, SY2: 71.4% dry, MP2: 69.8%, MP2: 22.7% wet) were detected in street vended food as low molecular weight hydrocarbons, with higher degree of distribution during dry season than the wet season. Higher molecular weight Benzo(a)anthracene was detected for all food samples. For RY2: 86.1% dry and 81% wet, RF3:71.3% dry and RF3: 52.0% wet, RF2: 69.0% wet, RF2: 61.4 dry, (DN1-DN3: 28-71.5% wet) and (DN1-3: 21.9-76% dry) seasons for Benzo(a)anthracene. The study showed that Benzo(a)anthracene had the highest percentage distribution during dry season in roasted fish and doughnut (DN2). Benzo(k)fluoranthene (RP1: 2.5% wet, 2.6%dry), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (RY2: 9.9% wet, 1.7% dry, MP2: 8.9% dry and 2.7% wet) and Benzo(a)pyrene (RP1: 5.5% wet, 4.5% dry) were detected in all vended foods during wet and dry seasons, with higher percentage values observed during the dry season. Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and Benzo(a)pyrene were detected in all vended foods. The study showed that the wet and dry seasons have imparted on the distribution levels of Lower Molecular Weight (LMW) and Higher Molecular Weight (HMW) of PAHs in ready-to-eat vended street foods. The patterns of distribution established the presence of these PAHs in selected ready-to-eat vended street foods. PAHs found in street vended foods is of public health concern to consumers and call for urgent attention for the review of the PAHs sources in food preparations, handling and storage in Port Harcourt metropolis.</p> 2020-02-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Standardization and Stabilization of Millet Milk by Enzyme and Its Physicochemical Evaluation 2020-02-15T08:46:53+00:00 K. Shunmugapriya S. Kanchana T. Uma Maheswari R. Saravana Kumar C. Vanniarajan <p>Millets are nutritionally rich and occupy an important place in the diet of people in many regions of the world.&nbsp; Although millets are nutritionally&nbsp; superior&nbsp; to&nbsp; cereals, their&nbsp; utilization&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; food&nbsp; is&nbsp;&nbsp; mostly confined&nbsp; to&nbsp; the traditional consumers. So, the present study was undertaken to standardize millet milk from barnyard millet, little millet, kodo millet and finger millet by enzymatic extraction method. Aqueous extract of millet milk was treated with α amylase and pasteurized at 75ºC for 15 minutes. The pasteurized millet milk was evaluated for physical and nutritional parameters. Results showed that the physical properties of developed millet milk have met the requirement of plant-based milk in terms of viscosity (2.32±0.02 to 2.82±0.03). Protein content of millet milk varied from 1.38±.0.03 to 1.12±.0.02 g. Total polyphenols (205.72±0.13 mg/100 ml) and total antioxidant activity (81.64±1.77%) were high for finger millet milk and total flavonoid content was high for barnyard millet milk (96.25±1.88 mg/100 ml). Enzymatic treatment significantly reduced the anti-nutritional factor (phytic acid, tannin and trypsin inhibitor activity) content in millet milk. The enzymatically developed product had high <em>In</em> <em>vitro</em> protein (69.28±0.28 to 85.57±1.39%) and starch digestibility (69.75±0.56 to 63.36±0.12 mg maltose/g). From the results, it was concluded that the current approach provides a convenient way for the production of nutritionally sound millet milk at the household and industrial level.</p> 2020-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##