Main Article Content
The present study was undertaken to produce cookies from readily available but underutilized Nigerian crops such as sorghum, pigeon pea and orange fleshed sweet potato. Different blends of sprouted sorghum, pigeon pea and orange fleshed potato flour were mixed and coded in the ratios (w/w) 100:0:0 (A), 95:5:0 (B), 85:10:5(C), 75:15:10(D), 65:20:15(E) while 100% wheat flour (F) was produced as control. The functional properties of the flour samples were determined while produced cookies were evaluated for their physical, proximate, selected vitamins, anti-nutrients and sensory properties using standard methods. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling index of flour blends were observed as the level of substitutions increased. Control sample had the highest weight (13.89 g) and spread ratio (1.22) while sample E had the least weight (7.31 g) and least spread ratio (0.92). Moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, crude fibre contents as well as energy value of flour blends cookies were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with increased level of pigeon pea and potato flours addition. Significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the carbohydrate content of the cookies was observed. Vitamin A and C contents of sample E were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value obtained for sample F. Anti-nutritional factors in the cookies samples were within permissible levels. Sensory ratings showed that sample B compared favourably with sample F based on overall acceptability.
Usman GO, Ameh UE, Alifa ON, Babatunda RM. Proximate composition of biscuits produced from wheat flour and maize bran composite flour, fortified with carrot extract. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;5:395
Akubor P. Functional properties and performance of cowpea/plantain/wheat four blend in biscuits. Journal of Plant Food and Human Nutrition. 2003;58:1- 8.
Amir MA, Muralikrishna GE. Tinay AH, Mustafa AI. Characterization of tannins and study of in vivo protein digestibility and mineral profile of Sudanese and Indian sorghum cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(4):469-476.
Bello FA, Udo II, Mbak DL. Proximate composition and functional properties of sprouted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and defatted fluted pumpkinseed (Telfairia occidenItalis) flour blends. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences. 2017;5(4):254-259.
Kaoneka SR, Saxena RK, Silim SN, Odeny DA, Ganga Rao NV, Shimelis HA, Siambi M, Varshney RK. Pigeon pea breeding in eastern and southern Africa: Challenges and opportunities. Plant Breeding. 2016; 135:148-154.
Chandrasekara A, Kumar TJ. Root and tuber crops as a functional foods: A review on phytochemical constituents and their potential health benefit. International Journal of Food Science. 2016;1-15.
Tang Y, Cai W, Xu B. Profiles of phenolics, carotenoids and antioxidative capacities of thermal processed white, yellow, orange and purple sweet potatoes grown in Guilin, China. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2015;4(3):123-132.
Wang SD, Pan X, Lv X. Proteomic approach reveals that starch degradation contributes to anthocyanin accumulation in tuberous root of purple sweet potato. Journal of Proteomics. 2016;143:298-305.
Ngoma K, Mashau ME, Silungwe H. Physicochemical and functional properties of chemically pretreated ndou sweet potato flour. International Journal of Food Science. 2019;1-9.
Nwosu JN. Production and evaluation of biscuits from blends of Barbara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and Wheat (Triticum eastrum) Flours. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Science. 2013;2(1):4- 9.
Inyang UE, Daniel EA, Bello FA. Production and quality evaluation of functional biscuits from whole wheat flour supplemented with acha (fonio) and kidney bean flours. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2018;6(6):193-201.
Oyarekua MA, Adeyeye EI. Comparative and nutritional quality, functional properties and amino acid profile of fermented maize/cowpea and sorghum/cowpea ogi as infant complementary food. Asian Journal of clinical Nutrition. 2009;1:31-39.
Olawuni IA, Ojukwu M, Eboh B.Comparative study on the physico-chemical properties of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour and protein isolate. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science. 2012;122-126.
FAO. Statistical database. Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics, Rome; 2011.
Okpala LG, Okoli EC, Udensi EA. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies made from blends of germinated pigeon pea, fermented sorghum and cocoyam flours. Food Science and Nutrition. 2013;1(1):8-14.
Onwuka GI. Food analysis and instrumentation, theory and practice. Naphthali prints. Lagos, Nigeria. 2005; 133-137.
Adeyeye EI, Oshodi AA, Ipinmoroti KO. Functional properties of some varieties of African yam bean (Spihenostylis stenocarpa) flour. International Journal Food Science Nutrition. 1994;45:115-126.
Abbey BW, Ibeh GO. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Journal of Food Science. 1988;53(6):1775-1778.
McWatters KH, Ouedraogo JB, Resurreccion AVA, Hung Y, Phillips RD. Physical and sensory characteristics of sugar cookies containing mixtures of wheat, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flours. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2003;38:403-410.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis (18th Edition). Association of official Analytical Chemists, Wahington DC, USA; 2005.
Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. MacMillan Edu. Publishers, London. 1985;172-193.
Chandra S, Samsher S, Durvesh K. Evaluation of functional properties of biscuits from green gram, wheat and potato composite flours and their sensorial attributes. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(6):3681-3688.
Adebowale AA, Sanni LO, Aownorin SO. Efeect of texture modifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of dries fufu. Food Science and Technology International. 2005;11:373-382.
Iwe MO, Onyekwu U, Agiriga AN. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of FARO 44 rice, African yam bean and brown cowpea seeds composite flour. Cogent Food and Agricultural Journal. 2016;2:5.
Bello FA, Ntukidem OJ, Oladeji BS. Assessment of chemical compositions, physical and sensory properties of biscuits produced from yellow yam, unripe plantain and pumpkin seed flour blends. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering. 2018;8(5):119- 126.
Ukeyima MT, Dendegh TA, Okeke PC. Effect of carrot powder addition on the quality attributes of cookies produced from wheat and soy flour blends. Asian Food Science Journal. 2019;10(3):1-13.
Suriya M, Rajput R, Reddy K, Haripriya S, Bashir M. Functional and physicochemical characteristics of cookies prepared from Amorphophallus paeoniifolius flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017;54(7):2156-2165.
Onimawo IA, Akubor PI. Food Chemistry (Integrated Approach with Biochemical background) 2nd Edn. Joytal Printing Press. Ibadan, Nigeria; 2012.
Igbabul BD, Iorliam BM, Umana EN. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from composite of wheat, cocoyam and African yam bean. Journal of Food Research. 2015;4(2):150-158.
Inyang UE, Effiong CF, Edima-Nyah AP. Physical properties, nutritional composition and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from rice, unripe banana and sprouted soybean flour blends. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. 2018;3(2):70-76.
Ikpeme Emmanuel CA, Osuchukwu NC, Oshiele L. Functional and sensory properties of wheat (Aestium triticium) and taro flour (Colocasia esculenta) composite bread. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(5):248-253.
Amal AM. Quality evaluation of wheat-sweet potato composite flours and their utilization in bread making: International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2015;2(11):294-303.
Mandalari G, Tomaino A, Arcoraci T, Martorana ML, Turco V, Cacciola F, Rich GT, Bisignano C. Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from skins of almonds (Amygdalus communis L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2010;23:166-174.
Cust AE, Shilton MR, Van B. Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fiber intakes in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. European Journal Clinical Nutrition. 2009; 63:37-60.
Obinna-Echem PC, Kuri V, Beal J. Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of Akamu, a fermented maize food. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007;94(2):331-340.
Alhassan MW, Ojangba T, Amagloh FK. Development of gluten-free biscuit from peanut-pearl millet composite flour. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019;7(2):40-44.
Knowles J, Watkinson C, Johnstone I. Extraction of Wheat Germ: The Production of Wheat Germ Oil and Defatted Stabilized Wheat Germ. Lipid Technology. 2014;26: 157-161.
Dabels N, Igbabul BD, Amove J, Iorliam B. Nutritional composition, physical and sensory properties of cookies from wheat, acha and mung bean composite flours. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2016;5(6):401-406.
FAO /WHO. Statistical database. Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics, Rome; 1992.
Elinge CM, Muhammad A, Atiuk FA, Itodo AU, Peni IJ, Sanni OM, Mbongo AN. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds extract. International Journal of Plant Research. 2012;2(5)146-150.
Ifie I, Emeruwa CH. Nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of the larva of Oryctes monoceros. Agricultural and Biology Journal of North America. 2011; 2(1):42-46.
Heldman DR. Identifying food science and technology research needs. Journal of Food Technology. 2004;58:32-34.