Impact of Wet and Dry Seasons on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Vended Street Foods in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis

Main Article Content

G. I. Oyet
D. B. Kiin-Kabari
M. O. Akusu
S. C. Achinewhu

Abstract

The distribution patterns of PAHs in selected ready-to-eat street foods in parts of Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated during wet and dry seasons in 3 locations (Makoba-station 1, Elekahia-station 2 and Rivers State University-station 3). The study was carried out using a complete randomized design in three factorial experiments (Factors A, B and C). Factor A represented Season, B Location and C Street Vended foods samples. The selected food samples were Roasted plantain (RP1-3), Roasted Fish (RF1-3), Roasted Yam (RY1-3), Meat Pie (MP1-3), Suya (SY1-3) and Doughnut (DN1-3). The foods were sampled twice each season and the mean results recorded. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used for the identification and evaluation of the presence of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs). Percentage distribution of PAHs in street vended foods during the wet and dry season showed naphthalene value of RY1:57.6% dry and RY1 Not Detected (ND) wet season, MP2: 10.7% dry and MP2: 3.4% wet. Higher naphthalene values distribution during dry season (DN1: 59.6%) was observed, with corresponding lower values recorded during the wet season (DN1: 43.3%). RP1: 10.4% wet and RY1: 19.4% wet while RP1: 9.6% dry and RY1: 2.6% dry showed lower percentage of Flouranthene values during the dry season compared with higher values obtained for the wet season. Chrysene values (RP1: 10.9% wet, RP1: 10.0% dry, SY2: 69.2% wet, SY2: 71.4% dry, MP2: 69.8%, MP2: 22.7% wet) were detected in street vended food as low molecular weight hydrocarbons, with higher degree of distribution during dry season than the wet season. Higher molecular weight Benzo(a)anthracene was detected for all food samples. For RY2: 86.1% dry and 81% wet, RF3:71.3% dry and RF3: 52.0% wet, RF2: 69.0% wet, RF2: 61.4 dry, (DN1-DN3: 28-71.5% wet) and (DN1-3: 21.9-76% dry) seasons for Benzo(a)anthracene. The study showed that Benzo(a)anthracene had the highest percentage distribution during dry season in roasted fish and doughnut (DN2). Benzo(k)fluoranthene (RP1: 2.5% wet, 2.6%dry), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (RY2: 9.9% wet, 1.7% dry, MP2: 8.9% dry and 2.7% wet) and Benzo(a)pyrene (RP1: 5.5% wet, 4.5% dry) were detected in all vended foods during wet and dry seasons, with higher percentage values observed during the dry season. Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and Benzo(a)pyrene were detected in all vended foods. The study showed that the wet and dry seasons have imparted on the distribution levels of Lower Molecular Weight (LMW) and Higher Molecular Weight (HMW) of PAHs in ready-to-eat vended street foods. The patterns of distribution established the presence of these PAHs in selected ready-to-eat vended street foods. PAHs found in street vended foods is of public health concern to consumers and call for urgent attention for the review of the PAHs sources in food preparations, handling and storage in Port Harcourt metropolis.

Keywords:
Wet and dry season, chromatography, PAHs, street vended foods, distribution patterns

Article Details

How to Cite
Oyet, G. I., Kiin-Kabari, D. B., Akusu, M. O., & Achinewhu, S. C. (2020). Impact of Wet and Dry Seasons on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Vended Street Foods in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(1), 16-29. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130180
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ameko E, Achio S, Alhassan S, Kassim A. Microbial safety of raw mixed-vegetable salad sold as an accompaniment to street vended cooked rice in Accra, Ghana. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012; 11(50):11078-11085.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization. Report on: Improving the nutritional quality of street foods to better meet the micronutrient needs of school children in Urban Areas. 2007;14-17.

Umar AA, Sambo MN, Sabitu K, Mande AT, Umar J. Personal hygiene of street-food vendors in Sabon-Gari local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal Basic Clinical Science. 2019;16:114-20.

Akpambang VOE, Purcaro G, Lajide L, Amoo LA, Conte LS, Moret S. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commonly consumed Nigeria smoked/grilled fish and meat. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment. 2009; 26(7):1096-1103.
DOI: 10.1080/02652030902855406

Ciecierska M, Obiedzinksi M. Influence of smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in meat products. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria. 2007;6(4):17-28.

Proietti I, Frazzoli C, Mantovani A. Identification and Management of toxicological hazards of Street foods in developing countries. Food and Chemistry Toxicology. 2014;63:143-152.
DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.047

Ziegenhals K, Spear K, Jira W. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in chocolates on the German market. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsi-cherheit. 2009;4(2):128-135.

Skupinska K, Misiewicz I, Kasprzycka-Guttman T. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Physiochemical properties, environmental appearance and impact on living organisms. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. 2004;61(3):233-240.

Anjali S, Dipanjali M. Monitoring and reporting VOCs in ambient air. Air Quality Monitoring, Assessment and Management. Dr. Nicolas Mazzeo (Ed.), InTech. 2011; 137-148.

Available:http://www.intechopen.com/books/air-quality
DOI: 10.5772/16774

Eke-Ejiofor J, Maxwell US. Safety and quality assessment of street vended roasted plantain (bole) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science. 2019; 7(1):9-13.

Alonge DO. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) determined in Nigerian Kundi (smoke-dried meat). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1988;43(2):167-172.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740430207

Garcίa-Falcón MS, Gonzάles AS, Lage YMA, Simal LJ. Determination of benzo(a)pyrene in some Spanish commercial smoked products by HPLC-FL. Food Additives and Contaminants. 1999;16(1):9-14.
DOI: 10.1080/026520399284271

Lijinsky W. The formation and occurrence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons associated with Food. Mutation Research/ Genetic Toxicology. 1999;259(34):251-261.
DOI: 10.1016/0165-1218(91)90121-2

Fritz W, Soos KL. Smoked Food and Cancer. Bibliotheca Nutritio Et Dieta.1980; 29:57-64.
DOI: 10.1159/000387467

Borokovcova I, Dofkova M, Rehurkova I, Ruprich J. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Czech Foodstuffs in the Year 2004. Chem. Listy. 2005;99:268-270.

Emerole GO. Carcinogenic PAHs in some Nigerian Foods. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1980; 24(1):641-646.

De Vos RH, Van Dokkum W, Schouten A, De Jong-Berkhout P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dutch total diet samples. Food and Chemistry Toxicology. 1990; 28(4):263-268. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(90)90038-O

Ziegler RG. Persons at high risk of cancer. Wall Street Journal. 2000;14:10-12.

Bababunmi EA, Emerole GO, Uwaifo AO, Thabrew MI. The role of aflatoxins and other aromatic hydrocarbons in human carcinogenesis. In: Bartsch H, Armstrong N(ed) Host factors in Carcinogenesis, IARC Scientific Publication. 1982;39:395-403.

Kazerouni N, Sinha R, Hsu CH, Greenberg A, Rothman N. Analysis of 200 foods Items for benzo[a]pyrene and estimation of its intake in an epidemiologic study. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2001;39(1):423-436.
DOI: 10.1016/s0278-6915(00)00158-7

Phillips DH. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Diet. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 1999;443(12): 139-147.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5742(99)00016-2

Grimmer G. Carcinogenic hydrocarbons in the human environment. Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1968;108-529.

Shabad LM, Cohan YL. Contents of benzo[a]pyrene in some crops. Arch Geschwulstforsch. 1972;40:237-243.

IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of the chemical to man. Lyon, France: World Health Organization. 1973;3.

Menzie CA, Potocki BB, Santodonato J. Exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in the environment. Environmental Science and Technology, 1992;26(7):278-1284.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/es00031a002

Amos-Tautua BMW, Inengite AK, Abasi CY, Amirize GC. Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals in roasted food snacks in Amassoma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2013;7(10):961-966.

Duke O, Albert IO. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in char-broiled meat suya. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2007;7:1873-1879.

Akpan V, Lodovici M, Dolara P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from the three Nigerian cities. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.1994;53(2): 246-253.
DOI:10.1007/bf00192040

Lioy PL, Waldman JM, Greenberg A, Harkov R, Pietarinen C. The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) to benzo(a)pyrene: Comparison of the inhalation and food pathways. Archives of Food Environmental Health. 1988;43(4): 304-312.
DOI: 10.1080/00039896.1988.10545954

Ahmed MT, Abdel-Hadi ES, EL-Samahy S, Youssof K. The influence of baking fuel on the residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2000; 80(1-3):1-8.
DOI: 10.1016/s0304-3894(00)00300-9

Chukwujindu MAI. Concentrations and hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hawked baked ready-to-eat foods in Nigeria. Acta Alimentaria. 2016;45(2):175-181.
DOI: 10.1556/AAlim.2015.0004

Bhatia R, Lopipeto P, Smith AH. Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiology. 1998;9:84-91.

Adonis M, Martinez V, Riquelme R, Ancic P, Gonzalez G, Tapia R. Susceptibility and exposure biomarkers in people exposed to PAHs from diesel exhaust. Toxicology Letters. 2003;144(1):3-15.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00225-X

Kanoh T, Fukuda M, Onozuka H, Kinouchi T, Ohnishi Y. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment. Environmental Research. 1993;62(2):230-241.
DOI: 10.1006/enrs.1993.1108

Kuo CT, Chen HW, Chen JL. Determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in children urine using column-switching liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 2004;805(2):187-193.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.12.012

Jacob J, Seidel A. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 2002;778(1-2):31-47.

Alexandria AK, Warholm M, Carstensen U, Axmon A, Hagmar L, Levin JO. CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21(4): 669-676.

Kuusimaki L, Peltonen Y, Mutanen P, Peltonen K, Savela K. Urinary hydroxy-metabolites of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene as markers of exposure to diesel exhaust. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2004;77(1):23-30.
DOI:10.1007/s00420-003-0477-y

Chuang CY, Lee CC, Chang YK, Sung FC. Oxidative DNA damage estimated by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; the influence of taxi driving, smoking and areca chewing. Chemosphere. 2003;52(7): 1163-1171.

Hansen AM, Wallin H, Binderup ML, Dybdahl M, Autrup H, Loft S, et al. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and mutagenicity in bus drivers and mail carriers exposed to urban air pollution in Denmark. Mutation Research. 2004;557(1):7-17.

Lee KH, Ichiba M, Zhang J, Tomokuni K, Hong YC, Ha M. Multiple biomarkers study in painters in a shipyard in Korea. Mutation Research. 2003;540(1):89-98.

Mukherjee S, Palmer LJ, Kim JY, Aeschliman DB, Houk RS, Woodin MA. Smoking status and occupational exposure affects oxidative DNA injury in boilermakers exposed to metal fume and residual oil fly ash. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Preservation. 2004;13(3): 454-460.

Tsai PJ, Shih TS, Chen HL, Lee WJ, Lai CH, Liou SH. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator for assessing the exposures of booth attendants of a highway toll station to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science and Technology. 2004;38(1):56-61.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/es030588k

Merlo F, Andreassen A, Weston A, Pan CF, Haugen A, Valerio F. Urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a marker for exposure to urban air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers Preservation. 1998;7(2):147-55.

LuPL, Chen ML, Mao IF. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in workers exposed to coke oven emissions at various locations in a coke oven plant. Archives of Environmental Health. 2002;57(3):255-261.
DOI:10.1080/00039890209602945

Serdar B, Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. Simultaneous determination of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3-and 9-phenanthrols, and 1-pyrenol in coke oven workers. Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response and susceptibility to Chemicals. 2003;8(2):93-109.
DOI: 10.1080/1354750021000046570

Siwinska E, Mielzynska D, Kapka L. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2004;61(3):10-17.
DOI: 10.1136/oem.2002.006643

EPA. US Environmental Protection Agency. An Exposure and Risk Assessment for Benzo[a]pyrene and other Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Vol. IV. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Report No. 4–85–020–V4; 1985.

Grzybowska E. Seasonal variations in levels of DNA adducts and X-spots in human populations living in different parts of Poland. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1993;99:77-81.

Motykiewicz G. Application of biomarkers in heavily polluted industrialized areas of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Toxicology. 1995;101:117-123.

ATSDR. Agency for toxic substances and disease registry. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1995.

Redmond CK, Ciocco A, Lloyd JW, Rush HW. Long-term mortality study of steelworkers: VI. Mortality from malignant neoplasms among coke oven workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1972; 14:621-629.

Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Lawther PL, Seidman H. Inhalation of benzpyrene and cancer in man. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1976;271:116-124.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1976.tb23100.x

Lloyd JW. Long-term mortality study of steelworkers: V. Respiratory cancer in coke plant workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1971;13(2):53-68.

Mazumdar S, Redmond C, Sollecito W, Sussman N. An epidemiological study of exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles among coke oven workers. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 1975;25(4): 382-389. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1975.10470095

Zedeck MS. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A review. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology.1980;3(5-7):537-567.