Mycotoxin Contamination Risks Due to Handling Practices of Indigenous Chicken Feeds in Kenya

Main Article Content

N. O. Owiro
H. A. Rachuonyo
J. O. Ochuodho
L. S. Gohole

Abstract

Aim: Mycotoxins are prevalent in animal feeds and agricultural products. These toxins are produced by fungi and once incorporated in the substrate, are not easy to eradicate. They are associated with morbidity and mortality in both livestock and humans. Avoiding contamination is the preferred way of mitigating mycotoxins in livestock feeds and cereals.

Study Design:  A purposive multiple-stage survey design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Between February and March 2016 to assess factors that exacerbate mycotoxins due to feed type and handling practice by smallholder farmers in farmer groups keeping indigenous chicken in Western Kenya.

Methodology: Three counties Siaya, Busia and Kakamega of Kenya were selected based on the population of indigenous chicken. Semi-structured questionnaires were used in gathering data on feed types, handling practices and mycotoxins awareness from 180 farmers in women and youth groups.

Results: Common feed types identified included maize (96%), sorghum (54%), cassava (42%), millet (40%), homemade rations (16%), while 44% used commercial feeds. It was noted that 38% use rotten, insect-infested, unsorted and broken cereals and 62% clean cereals as feeds. For storage, 85% and 7% of farmers were using polypropylene and hermetic bags, respectively; 97% dried their grains/feeds on a platform; 21% were not sorting their grains and 17% were not using grain preservatives during storage. Mycotoxin awareness levels were assessed among farmers. Approximately 44% of farmers were unaware of feed safety while 71% were aware of mycotoxins; however, 73% of participants were unaware of dangers posed by mycotoxin contamination in feeds.

Conclusion: Information to farmers on mycotoxin and proper feed and cereals handling and storage practices is necessary for mycotoxin management. Therefore, avoiding contamination is a preferred method of mitigating mycotoxins in indigenous chicken feeds and cereals.

Keywords:
Mycotoxins, indigenous chicken feeds, feed handling practices, mycotoxins awareness

Article Details

How to Cite
Owiro, N. O., Rachuonyo, H. A., Ochuodho, J. O., & Gohole, L. S. (2019). Mycotoxin Contamination Risks Due to Handling Practices of Indigenous Chicken Feeds in Kenya. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 10(3), 168-177. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330109
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ochieng J, Owuor G, Bebe OB. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. 2013;114(1):51–58.

Pleadin J. Mycotoxins in grains and feed - contamination and toxic effect in animals. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry. 2015; 31(4):441–456. Available:https://doi.org/10.2298/BAH1504441P

Iheshiulor OOM, Esonu BO, Chuwuka OK, Omede AA, Okoli IC, Ogbuewu IP. Effects of mycotoxins in animal nutrition: A review. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2013; 5(1):19–33.

Mutiga SK, Hoffmann V, Harvey JW, Milgroom MG, Nelson RJ. Assessment of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya. Phytopathology. 2015;105(9):1250–1261. Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-10-14-0269-R

Jeswal P, Kumar D. Mycobiota and natural incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and citrinin in indian spices confirmed by LC-MS/MS. International Journal of Micro-biology; 2015.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/242486

Atanda SA, Pessu PO, Agoda S, Isong IU, Adekalu OA, Echendu MA, Falade TC. Fungi and mycotoxins in stored foods. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011;5(25):4373–4382.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR11.487

Wagacha JM, Muthomi JW. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: Current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies. Inter-national Journal of Food Microbiology. 2008;124(1):1–12. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.01.008

Magnussen A, Parsi MA. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013:19(10):1508–1512. Available:https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v19.i10.1508

Kowalska A, Walkiewicz K, Kozieł P, Muc-wierzgoń M. Aflatoxins: Characteristics and impact on human health. Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 2017;71:315–327.
Available:http://www.phmd.pl/fulltxt.php?ICID=1237128

Shuaib FMB, Ehiri J, Abdullahi A, Williams JH, Jolly PE. Reproductive health effects of aflatoxins: A review of the literature. Reproductive Toxicology. 2010:29(3):262–270. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.12.005

Kana JR, Gbemenou B, Gnonlonfin J, Harvey J, Wainaina J, Wanjuki I, Skilton RA, Teguia A. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon. Toxins. 2013;5:884–894.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins5050884

Ayieko MOD, Bett EK, Kabuage LW. Analysis of indigenous chicken marketing participation decisions: The case of producers from Makueni County, Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2015;81(1):12-17.

Logrieco AF, Miller JD, Eskola M, Krska R, Ayalew A, Bandyopadhyay R, Battilani P, Bhatnagar D, Chulze S, De Saeger S, Li P, Perrone G, Poapolathep A, Rahayu ES, Shephard GS, Stepman F, Zhang H, Leslie JF. Exposure Worldwide. Toxins. 2018; 10(149):1–17. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040149

Kaaya AN, Kyamuhangire W, Kyamanywa S. Factors affecting aflatoxin contamination of harvested maize in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2006;6(11):2401–2407.

Kingori A, Wachira A, Tuitoe, J. Indigenous chicken production in Kenya. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9(4):309–316.
Available:http://www.pjbs.org/ijps/fin1669.pdf

Jaetzold R, Schmidt H, Hornetz B, Shisanya C. Farm management handbook of Kenya– Natural conditions and farm management information – Western Kenya-Subpart A2 Nyanza Province. 2nd ed, Vol. 2/A2. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Agriculture; 2009.

Jaetzold R, Schmidt H, Hornetz B, Shisanya C. Farm management handbook of Kenya– Natural conditions and farm management information – PART A Western Kenya Subpart A1 Western Province. Vol. II/A1. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Agriculture; 2005.

Mutua BM. Challenges facing indigenous chicken production and adoption levels of biosecurity measures in selected areas of Makueni County, Kenya. South Eastern Kenya University; 2018,

Kumar D, Kalita P. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries. Foods. 2017;6(1):8.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6010008

Kang’ethe EK, Korhonen H, Marimba KA, Nduhiu G, Mung’atu JK, Okoth SA, Joutsjoki VW, Wamae L, Shalo P. Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya. Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1(4):268–274.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/fqsafe/fyx025

Owuor MJ, Midega, CAO, Obonyo M, Khan ZR. Distribution of Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot causative fungi in soils under push - pull and maize monocropping system in Western Kenya. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;11(37): 1411–1421. Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2017.8685

Makun HA, Dutton MF, Njobeh PB, Gbodi TA, Haruna OG. Aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds: A special focus on Africa. In Trends in Vital Food and Control Engineering; InTech; Rijeka; 2012.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5772/2354

Alakonya AE, Monda EO. A new approach in aflatoxin management in Africa: Targeting aflatoxin / sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in Aspergillus Species by RNA silencing technique. In: Razzaghi-Abyaneh M, editor, InTech Janeza Trdine; Rijeka; 2013.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5772/51440

Shabani I, Kimanya ME, Gichuhi PN, Bonsi C, Bovell-Benjamin AC. Maize storage and consumption practices of farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for mycotoxin contamination. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015;05(08):330–339. Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2015.58037

Hell K, Mutegi C. Aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in key crops of Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Micro-biology Research. 2011;5(5):459–466.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR10.009

Villers P. Food safety and aflatoxin control. Journal of Food Research. 2017;6(2):1–12.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5539/Abstract

Gitonga Z, De Groote H, Tefera T. Metal silo grain storage technology and house-hold food security in Kenya. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2015;7(6):222–230. Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/JDAE2015.0648

Whitaker TB. Standardisation of mycotoxin sampling procedures: An urgent necessity. Food Control. 2003;14(4):233–237.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00012-4

Alberts JF, van Zyl WH, Gelderblom WCA. Biologically based methods for control of fumonisin-producing Fusarium species and reduction of the fumonisins. Frontiers in Microbiology; 2017.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00548

Park DL. Effect of processing on aflatoxins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2002;504:173–179.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0629-4_17

Tibola CS, Fernandes JMC, Guarienti EM. Effect of cleaning, sorting and milling processes in wheat mycotoxin content. Food Control. 2016;60:174–179.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.07.031

Denli M. Implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds. Agro Life Scientific Journal. 2015;4(1):52–55.

Afolabi CG, Bandyopadhyay R, Leslie JF, Ekpo EJA. Effect of sorting on incidence and occurrence of fumonisins and fusarium verticillioides on maize from Nigeria. Journal of Food Protection. 2006;69(8): 2019–2023.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-69.8.2019

James B, Adda C, Cardwell K, Annang D, Hell K, Kori ES, Houenou G. Public information campaign on aflatoxin contamination of maize grains in market stores in Benin, Ghana and Togo. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2007;24(11): 1283–1291. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701416558

Magembe KS, Mwatawala MW, Mamiro DP, Chingonikaya EE. Assessment of awareness of mycotoxins infections in stored maize (Zea mays L.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) in Kilosa District, Tanzania. International Journal of Food Contamination. 2016;3(1):12.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40550-016-0035-5

Adekoya I, Njobeh P, Obadina A, Chilaka C, Okoth S, De Boevre M, De Saeger S. Awareness and prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in selected Nigerian fermented foods. Toxins. 2017;9(11):1– 16.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9110363

Stepman F. Scaling-up the impact of aflatoxin research in Africa. The role of social sciences.Toxins. 2018;10(136).
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040136

Unnevehr L, Grace D. Aflatoxins finding solutions for improved food safety. Inter-national Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2020 Focus Brief 20. Washington, DC, USA; 2013.
Available:https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896296763

Okoth S. Improving the evidence base on aflatoxin contamination and exposure in Africa Agriculture and nutrition No. 16/13; 2016.